The Effect Of Seed Biomass On Beetle Biomass Gain Essays

The Effect Of Seed Biomass On Beetle Biomass Gain Essays

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In order to fully understanding of our data, the results are organized in three subsections: the beetle morphological traits results in which we assessed general data about species and sex abundance, morphological traits (i.e., tibia length, femur lengths and beetle biomass) and the sampling events and sites; the interplay between beetle’s morphological traits and host plant traits results in which we assessed the relationship among morphological traits and between resources traits; and finally the laboratory experiment where we investigated the effects of seed biomass on beetle biomass gain (for each sex), and its consequences on individual longevities.

Beetle’s morphological traits
We found 708 Bruchinae beetles associated with S. tenuifolia seeds. Of which, 631 were M. terani species in all sampled sites and 77 were S. maculatopygus species, which was present in six sites. For beetle traits assessment, we measured a total of 384 beetles, wherein 346 were M. terani individuals and 38 were S. maculatopygus species, representing respectively 90.11% and 9.89 % of the total sampled beetles in 2011. From the S. maculatopygus individuals we assessed four female and 30 male beetles (four individuals were unidentifiable by sex) while for M. terani we had 164 females and 179 male individuals (three individuals were not identified by sex). As we observed in this study, the M. terani is the most abundant species present in S. tenuifolia plant when compared to S. maculatopygus and also comparing to other insects associated to this plant (Tuller et al. 2015).
Table 1 resumes morphological traits data in respect to species, sex and sampling events. Analysing the species separately and assuming sex as explicative variable, we observed no dif...

... middle of paper ...

...iomass (F= 0.36, p= 0.861 – Fig. 5D) and the consumed biomass did not vary between sexes (F= 0.34, p= 0.560). On the other hand, we observed that estimated heavier seeds were more consumed by the beetles, independently of sex (female: F= 83.84, p< 0.001; male: F= 109.09, p< 0.001 - Fig. 5B). In addition, we found heavier adults inside heavier seeds, with females showing a stronger response than males (female: F= 8.75, p= 0.004; male: F= 30.38, p< 0.001 - Fig. 5C). Finally, despite those influences and differences ascribed above, the covariance analyses showed that beetle individual longevities were not influenced by sex (F= 0.47, p= 0.496) and beetle biomass (F= 0.04, p= 0.834). Other relationships were established considering seed biomass (F= 1.80, p= 0.181) and consumed seed biomass (F= 1.77, p= 0.185) and their influence on longevity and non-relation were observed.

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