The Effect Of Particulate Matter On Human Health Essay

The Effect Of Particulate Matter On Human Health Essay

Length: 1217 words (3.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

1.1 Background
Particulate matter (PM), also known as aerosols, is defined as a suspension of liquid droplet and/or solid particles in the atmosphere. Generally ambient PM are conglomerates of many pollutant subclasses, potentially comprising of different organic and inorganic species. Particulate matter is one of the extremely important criteria air pollutants, which is listed under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, together with ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), lead (Pb) and carbon monoxide (CO) (USEPA). PM contributes to smog formation and visibility degradation in urban atmosphere, and influences the surface albedo by decreasing the amount of heat reaching the ground (Seinfeld and Pandis 2006). More importantly, numerous health studies have demonstrated that exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has strong associations with significant impacts on human health (Li et al. 2003a; Pope et al. 2004; Delfino et al. 2005; Campbell et al. 2005; Morgan et al. 2011; Ritz et al. 2002; Wilhelm and Ritz 2005). Therefore, understanding the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of ambient PM is significantly essential in allowing for more effective regulatory control strategies, more targeted air quality standards, and ultimately, reductions in population exposure to harmful types of airborne PM.

Typically, ambient PM are directly emitted from different type of sources (defined as primary aerosol), or formed by gas-to-particle partition process (defined as secondary aerosol) during photo-chemical reaction in the atmosphere. Both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to primary aerosol in ambient air. Natural sources include wood smoke, volcanic activities, sea spray and etc. (Seinfeld ...


... middle of paper ...


...ion of ambient PM is very complex and highly dependent on a number of factors including regional meteorology, topography, and natural (i.e. sea-salt) and anthropogenic (i.e. vehicular emissions) source strengths of PM, all of which may vary in short periods of time (Cheung et al. 2011; Daher et al. 2013; Sardar et al. 2005). For instance, urban ambient PM components usually include metals, trace elements, black carbon, inorganic salts and a large number of organic species (Cheung et al., 2011). Due to the complex composition of ambient PM, assessing which PM constituents are linked to adverse health outcomes as well as the exact mechanisms leading to these outcomes remains an active topic of research. Therefore, ambient PM measurement in high time resolution becomes critical to identify the toxicologically relevant PM species, as well as the sources of these species.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay On Particulate Matter

- PM10 are particles of particulate matter which are 10 micrometers (μm) or less in diameter, further subdivided into coarse particles (between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter) and fine particles (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) (Franchini et al. 2016). Particulate matter concentrations are of interest as they are increasingly recognised as having a deleterious effect on human health, in particular an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (Franchini and Mannucci 2007; Franchini and Mannucci 2012; Newby et al....   [tags: Particulate, Air pollution, Smog]

Better Essays
1349 words (3.9 pages)

Essay On Particulate Matter

- The role of trace metals in Particulate Matter toxicity 1.0 Introduction Particulate matters (PMs) are major pollutants in atmospheres and they are categorized into two groups by size: Fine particles PM 2.5 (diameter less than 2.5 ㎛) and PM10 (< 10 ㎛). Ambient particulate matter is formed by both anthropogenic (e.g., industrial activities, combustion of fossil fuel, cigarette smoking etc) and natural sources (e.g., volcanic ash, sea salt etc) which consist of mixture of solids or liquids which are viable in size, shape, chemical composition, acidity etc (Fortoul et al., 2015)....   [tags: Iron, Metal, Zinc, Particulate, Volcano, Oxygen]

Better Essays
1726 words (4.9 pages)

Analyzing Particulate Matter Trends in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia 1979 - 2010

- Introduction Particulate matter (PM) is a comprehensive air pollutant that is made up of a mixture of solid and liquid particulates within the atmosphere. Poor air quality has a negative effect on human health; however soils, vegetation, and visibility can also be affected (AAQC, 2012). Particulate matter can vary among sizes, ranging from 0.005µm to 100µm in diameter (Environment Canada, 1999). The most common method to identify PM is to determine if the diameter is equal or less than 2.5µm....   [tags: Comprehensive Air Pollutant]

Better Essays
1591 words (4.5 pages)

Is Particulate Matter Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity/Mortality?

- Background There is considerable literature indicating a link between particulate matter and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals (Koken, et al, 2003). Particulate matter defined as any particle that measures less than or equal to ten micrometers (< 10µm PM10) or two point five micrometers(< 2.5µm PM2.5) that form from solid particles and liquid droplets. Most particulate matter forms due to vehicle admissions, industrials processes or wood burnings. Additionally, it has also been suggested that ultra fine particulate matter measuring less than or equal to 2.5 µm is considered more harmful to health than are larger particles in aerodynamic diameter becau...   [tags: Medical Research]

Better Essays
2122 words (6.1 pages)

Wildfires And Its Effects On The General Health Essay

- Wildfires are massive fires that occur suddenly, particularly in rural areas with combustible vegetation, and can have many causes which may be natural or humanrelated. Both natural and unnatural causes of wildfires have advantages and disadvantages. The rate at which wildfires spread is highly dependent on their environment and other factors. Wildfires may pose a number of threats to human property, life, and health; however, even though they can be a hazard to humans, they are also an important part of the natural processes in some habitats - forests, especially....   [tags: Wildfire, Controlled burn, Health, Particulate]

Better Essays
1369 words (3.9 pages)

Local Effects Of Air Pollution On Human Health And The Environment Essay

- Local Effects of Air Pollution Locally I live in a rural area that experiences very little air pollution, and the amount that is present often travels from other regions and in some cases, other countries. Information on the area I live in is not available so I chose the next small city, twenty-minutes away, that had available measurements. First, I will look at the types of pollutant that are present in our air, and I will discuss the adverse effects they have on human health and the environment....   [tags: Air pollution, Smog, Pollution, Particulate]

Better Essays
906 words (2.6 pages)

Air Pollution And Its Effect On The Environment Essay

- WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT UNIT 6 UNIVERSITY OF THE PEOPLE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT UNIT 6 Introduction Air pollution come about when gaseous particles, particulate matter, smoke or odor are introduced into the earth’s atmosphere in ways that make these particles harmful to living things. This harmful condition occurs because the air becomes unclean (Doršner, 2016). Some of the main air pollutants in Ghana include Dust (particulate matter), nitrogen dioxide, and Sulphur dioxide. The causes of air pollution include burning fossil fuels, agricultural practices that pollute the environment with pesticides, fertilizers and insectidies, mining operations, and exhaust from factories and industries (Dorsne...   [tags: Air pollution, Particulate, Smog, Dust]

Better Essays
1657 words (4.7 pages)

The Impact of the Environment on Health Essay

- Environmental health is the science that studies how the environment influences the human disease and health. Environment means things that are natural to us in the environment, for instance air, water, and soil. However, it also covers the physical, chemical, biological, and social features that surround us every day. The physical environment is the man-made or built structures that include our living, work, and even schools. Included in the community systems such as the roads and our transportations, and waste management....   [tags: Health]

Better Essays
792 words (2.3 pages)

The Effects Of Air Pollution On The United States Essay

- The quality of the air that we breathe, has always been important matter. No matter what season it is, the air that we breathe is, essentially, what keeps us alive. Air pollution, is something that has been a problem in the United States, for some time now. Throughout the last few years, there have reportedly been huge population increases in majority of the major cities. Those cities include: Atlanta, Ga., Los Angeles, Ca., Salt Lake City, Ut., and many others. Ironically these same cities are the ones that have the worst air quality in the United States....   [tags: Air pollution, Pollution, Particulate, Smog]

Better Essays
1110 words (3.2 pages)

Essay On Particulate Matter

- PM or particulate matter is made up of dust, ash, smoke, fumes, vapors and mists. Particulate matter that is emitted directly is called primary PM, particulate matter that forms in the atmosphere by gas is called secondary pm. There are two health based standards for particulate matter, PM10 for particles smaller than 10 microns and PM2.5 for particles smaller than 2.5. PM10 is made of course dust particles. Common sources are crushing or grinding operations and dust stirred up in fields or roads....   [tags: Air pollution, Particulate, Smog, Dust, Ozone]

Better Essays
1284 words (3.7 pages)