The Effect of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction

The Effect of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction

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The Effect of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction

Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid ―› sodium chloride + sulphur +
water + sulphur dioxide

Na S O + 2HCl ―› 2NaCl + F + H2o + SO2

Preliminary Investigation:

Before we carried out our investigation in full, we needed to do some
preliminary work to prove that the variables we were changing were
suitable, the concentrations of hydrochloric acid would not take too
long or short a time and to discover what range of values would be
needed on apparatus such as the conical flask. The results of our
preliminary work were as follows:

Concentration (%)

Time taken for cross to disappear (secs)

80

121

50

133

20

153

We also realised that we needed to use 25 ml of each sodium
thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid to make 50 ml. This seemed like an
appropriate amount to work with as it would offer significant results
without being over-large. Although we were only using 50 ml of
chemicals, we decided to use a 100ml conical flask. This allowed room
for reactions to take place without it spilling over. To change the
volume of our eventual solution, we would use a measuring cylinder to
measure the appropriate volumes of each, and we would not re-use the
solutions as once they had been reacted they could not be re-reacted.
The thermometer we used ranged from -10 to 110 degrees Celsius.
Although if this experiment is done correctly the temperature should
not change, we must make allowances for if it does, and that entails
allowing for negative temperatures. We chose a thermometer that was
accurate to 1 degree Celsius as we needed only that level of accuracy,
no more. We used a 25ml measuring cylinder as that was the maximum
amount we would be measuring out each time. It was accurate to 0.5 ml.
We are intending to repeat this experiment several times in order to
gain accurate, conclusive results.

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Proving it is a suitable variable:

The preliminary investigation proves that the reactants are going to
fully react in a reasonable timescale, which in this case is 129
seconds. Another factor showing that these concentrations are suitable
is the temperature. The temperature is not meant to change and it
doesnÂ’t in the experiment so it is a success. To prove that the
concentration of the acid is a suitable variable to change we have to
measure the time for the strongest and weakest acids to prove that the
graduation in time would not be too large. We have also decided to use
the hydrochloric acid rather than the sodium thiosulphate because the
hydrochloric acid will react more quickly and therefore give us our
results in a smaller time.

Apparatus:

Goggles

Sodium Thiosulphate (25ml)

Hydrochloric acid (25ml)

100ml conical flask (20ml intervals)

Thermometer (-10 to 110 degrees Celsius accurate to 1degree Celsius)

Stop-clock accurate to 100th of a sec

25ml measuring cylinder accurate to 0.5 ml

Method:

* Draw a cross in pencil on plain, white paper.

* Measure out the reactants (Hydrochloric acid and Sodium
thiosulphate)

* Pour sodium thiosulphate into conical flask

* Add the hydrochloric acid

* Start the stop-clock as soon as the first drop of acid touches the
sodium thiosulphate

* Take the temperature

* Stop the stop-clock when you cannot see the cross any more.

* Re-take the temperature.

* Repeat with the other concentrations of acid

A table to show the concentrations of hydrochloric acid we will be
using

HCl (ml)

Water (ml)

Percent (%)

5

20

20

10

15

40

15

10

60

20

5

80

25

0

100

* We will repeat the experiment three times for each of the varying
concentrations of acid shown above.

Fair Test:

The variable we are changing is the concentration of the hydrochloric
acid. To make it a fair test we have to keep all the other variable
constant throughout. The variables we are keeping the same are;

* The overall volume of the two reactants – this must be kept the
same so there is the same number of overall particles in each
solution as a larger number of particles could affect the rate of
reaction.

* The temperature – the temperature must be kept the same because if
it is changed the rate of reaction could be increased therefore
affecting the experiment.

* The concentration of sodium thiosulphate – this must be kept the
same to ensure a fair test.

Prediction:

I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases,
the rate of reaction will also increase. I think this because,
according to the collision theory, as the concentration increases
there is a bigger ratio of hydrochloric acid particles to the other
particles within that substance (for example, water) and so there is a
bigger chance that the reactant particles (hydrochloric acid and
sodium thiosulphate) will collide and react. For any reaction to
occur, the reactant particles must collide with at least the base
activation energy. If they collide but do not have this amount of
energy, they will simply ‘bounce’ off. As we increase the
concentration of the hydrochloric acid the cross will disappear more
quickly as the precipitate (sulphur) is being made more quickly. This
is the substance that makes the solution become cloudy. I also predict
that the time taken for the cross to disappear will decrease by
approximately 15 every time the concentration increases by 20%.

Safety:

* During this experiment, you should wear goggles throughout because
some of the materials used could cause irritation.

* HCl is the material that could cause irritation, so be careful
when handling and if any is split, clear it up immediately.

Concentration of hydrochloric acid (%)

Temp. (ËšC) before

Temp. (ËšC) after

Time taken for X to disappear (secs)

Average time (secs)

20

20

20

153

153.66Â…

20

20

20

155

20

20

20

153

40

20

20

145

146.00

40

20

20

146

40

20

20

147

60

20

20

128

128.66Â…

60

20

20

130

60

20

20

128

80

20

20

118

118.66Â…

80

20

20

120

80

20

20

122

100

20

20

98

99.33Â…

100

20

20

98

100

20

20

102

Conclusion:

As the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, the time taken
for the cross to disappear decreases. This happened because when the
concentration of hydrochloric acid was increased, there were more
hydrochloric acid particles although there was the same volume of
liquid altogether. This means that there is more chance that the two
reactant particles (hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate) will
collide with each other, causing a reaction. To react, the particles
must collide with the ‘activation energy’ which is the minimum amount
of energy the particles need to react, when they collide. As we
increase the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the cross will
disappear more quickly as the precipitate (sulphur) is being made more
quickly. This is the substance that makes the solution become cloudy.
Because of all these things, the rate of reaction should increase as
the concentration increases. We know this is correct when we look at
our results. For example; at the concentration of 20% hydrochloric
acid to 80% water the average time taken for the cross to disappear is
153.66Â… seconds. We worked out the rate of reaction for this and found
it to be 0.0065 using the formula rate of reaction = 1/time. At 80%
hydrochloric acid and 20% water the average time taken for the cross
to disappear is 118.66Â…. We worked out the rate of reaction for this
and found it to be 0.0084 using the formula rate of reaction = 1/time.
This shows a marked increase in the rate of reaction, we which
calculated to be 0.0019. This shows that my prediction was correct and
the rate of reaction did in fact increase as the concentration of
hydrochloric acid increased. As the concentrations increase, there is
a definite but steady decrease in the time taken for the cross to
disappear. The time decreases by an average of 13.583333Â… each time
the concentration increases by 20%. This is very close to my
prediction, which was that the time taken for the cross to disappear
would decrease by 15 seconds every time the concentration increases by
20%. This matched my prediction because I did fairly extensive
preliminary work which gave me an accurate indication of what to
expect from the full investigation.

Evaluation:

My experiment was reliable because I took every reading three times
which lessened the likelihood of a misleading anomaly. We recorded the
temperature before and after each experiment and it stayed constantly
at 20Ëšc throughout which also proves it was reliable. We only changed
one variable (the concentration of the hydrochloric acid) which made
it a fair test and also reliable as we took care to ensure that the
variables we didnÂ’t change were constant. The table below shows how
far apart the results in each concentration are;

Concentration (%)

Time taken for X to disappear (secs)

Range between times (secs)

20

153

2

20

155

20

153

40

145

2

40

146

40

147

60

128

2

60

130

60

128

80

118

4

80

120

80

122

100

98

4

100

98

100

102

All these results are fairly close together (no more than 4 seconds
apart) which proves that my experiment was very reliable and followed
the pattern expected of them. We found no anomalies in out results
which also indicates accuracy. The results we got from this experiment
followed a pattern of time decreasion as the concentration increased.
This was a correct pattern and what we expected. Our results, when
plotted on a graph, followed a straight line of best fit with negative
correlation. To improve the reliability of my investigation I could
repeat each reading 5 times instead of 3. This would virtually
eradicate any chance of getting all wrong readings. I could also go up
in 10% inclinations of the concentration of hydrochloric acid rather
than 20% inclinations. This would give us more readings, again
reducing the chance of getting several wrong results in a row and
believing them to be correct. With these extra results we could also
plot a more detailed graph which would then in turn give a more
accurate line of best fit. In the table below are the concentrations I
would do if I was to re-do this investigation.

Concentration of hydrochloric acid (%)

Volume of hydrochloric acid (ml)

Volume of water (ml)

Time taken for cross to disappear (secs)

10

2.5

22.5

My results would go here.

20

5

20

30

7.5

17.5

40

10

15

50

12.5

12.5

60

15

10

70

17.5

7.5

80

20

5

90

22.5

2.5

100

25

0

My investigation was accurate because I measured all of the volumes of
the hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate very carefully. I also
used as clean as apparatus as I could find and I cleaned it before I
used it. To maintain accuracy, I used a thermometer to 1Ëšc. To improve
the accuracy of my experiment I could use a digital thermometer, or
even better a data-logger with a temperature probe. This would
automatically take the temperature every 10 seconds and is accurate to
0.1Ëšc. Another way I tried to be as accurate as possible was I got the
same person out of me and the person I was working with to see if the
cross had disappeared each time. I did this because one personÂ’s
perception could be different to anotherÂ’s, as one could have better
eyesight than the other. To improve upon the accuracy of this I could
use a light sensor on a data-logger underneath the conical flask. This
would automatically stop the timer when it could not sense any light
getting through the solution. To be accurate, I used a measuring
cylinder accurate to 0.5 ml. To improve upon this I could use a papet
which is more accurate.

Summary:

At the end of this investigation and taking into account all the
evidence I have gathered, I believe I can draw a firm conclusion. This
is; as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid increases the time
taken for the cross to disappear decreased at a steady rate. This
concurs with my prediction. I could have improved the accuracy of my
investigation as stated previously but I trust that I can draw a
strong conclusion as my results only varied by a maximum of 4 seconds
which is very accurate and they followed the pattern expected. I did
not have any anomalous results which was also a good sign that they
were accurate. The temperatures did not change either, which indicated
accuracy. To maintain accuracy, we scrupulously didnÂ’t alter any other
variables as much as we could. Overall, our investigation was a
success with good, reliable results being the outcome and a clear,
definite conclusion.
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