One of the first gas laws discovered was the relating pressure and volume, or Boyle’s Law. Initially, this relationship was observed by English mathematician and astronomer Richard Towneley and English physician Henry Power, who studied the “elasticity” of air and experimented with mercury and air dilation (volume manipulation). Using a Torricellian tube and a mercury dish, the two were able identify the inverse correlation between pressure and volume of the air (gas). Their findings were then later verified and published by Robert Boyle. Boyle performed an experiment similar to that of Towneley and Power, using mercury and a glass j-tube sealed on one end. A fixed amount of Air (gas) was trapped on one end and Boyle would systematically add mercury on the open end (to allow atmospheric pressure affect the pressure the mercury forced against the trapped air) to change the pressure and volume of the gas. He determined ...
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...emperatures. From Amontons’ and Guy-Lussac’s research and experimentation, they determined that pressure and volume had direct relationship; as one increased, the other increased. The quotient of pressure and temperature was then found to equal a constant, in which just like Boyle’s law, could be used to find one of the two variables at another pressure or temperature, given one of the variables and that the other conditions remain the same. Instead of using various solutions at different temperatures like in the experiment describe above, many experiments today utilize a solution in which the temperature is increased or decrease, such as in the following experiment.
In the following procedures, the experiments performed by Boyle and Gay-Lussac will be remodeled and performed in order to better understand the relationships between pressure, volume, and temperature.
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