The Effect Of Fat Intake And Its Risk For Cardiovascular Disease Essay

The Effect Of Fat Intake And Its Risk For Cardiovascular Disease Essay

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The study of science has, and always will be, a continuous process throughout time. There have been many instances in history where something we regard as fact will come into question. This has been true for countless findings in the history of medicine. Previous research thought to be fact is not necessarily wrong; it is just the foundation of which current findings are built upon. Nutrition is especially vulnerable to these circumstances since we do not fully understand how our bodies function. One topic that has been in debate in recent years is the effect of dietary fats and the potential atherosclerosis risks. The dietary guidelines have previously been based on epidemiological data looking at associations. With new evidence-based research, our views on the subject are beginning to change, or at least, come into question. The relationship between saturated fat intake and its risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial.
Cholesterol is an integral component of cell membranes and acts as a precursor of bile acids and hormones. Cholesterol travels through the blood with the help of lipoproteins. These lipoproteins include low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The LDL concentration in the blood is a representation of total cholesterol concentration due to its maximal binding effect. [1] Consequentially, this is one of the reasons why LDL levels are the primary targets of cholesterol lowering efforts. Cholesterol is a component of fat, where a fat molecule is made up of two smaller molecules called glycerol and fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are long chains of carbon atoms with single bonds between them. Examples of food containing high con...

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...eptors. [13] This will lead to an increase in concentration of blood cholesterol. Another cause for an increase in blood cholesterol concentration through intake of dietary SFA is the composition of the newly secreted lipoproteins. With a high saturated fat intake, the LDL’s become rich in cholesterol esters, leaving the triglycerides in the blood. [14] The use of non-human primates in studies have been pivotal in these developments due to the effects in humans being significantly less evident. One clinical trial including 7 healthy participants conducted in 1983 had similar results to the non-human trials. The trial reported that increasing cholesterol intake caused both an increase in LDL production as well as a decrease in LDL catabolism. [15] This is supportive of the theory that when LDL receptors decrease there’s an increase of LDL’s and VLDL’s in circulation.

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