The Effect Of Calcium Chloride On A Statewide Scale Essay

The Effect Of Calcium Chloride On A Statewide Scale Essay

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This experiment identified how well calcium chloride would work as a deicer on a statewide scale. The ability of calcium chloride to change the freezing point of deionized water was measured by determining the Van’t Hoff factor in the freezing point depression equation. The cooling curve of a calcium chloride solution was mapped. The enthalpy of dissolution of calcium chloride when mixed with deionized water was measured. The average Van’t Hoff factor obtained was 2.67. The average heat of dissolution was found to be 64.4 kJ/mol. The cost was determined to be $200/ton in material cost with considerably more cost caused by the corrosive effects on the environment. Calcium chloride was found to cause corrosion to vehicles and infrastructure. It was also found that calcium chloride damaged trees and woody plants in particular with less severe effects seen in exposed grasses. The potential to release heavy metals into small streams, soil, and groundwater of low flow was another side effect of calcium chloride usage. It was concluded that calcium chloride could be used as a viable road deicer if its environmental impacts can be minimized.

Introduction
The experiment intended to measure the freezing point depression, heat of dissolution, costs, and environmental impacts of calcium chloride when used a road deicer. Calcium chloride was determined to likely be an effective deicer as it has been widely sold for the purpose. It was thus hypothesized to have a high freezing point depression in deionized water and a high heat of dissolution as both are desirable characteristics of deicers. The reasons for its la...


... middle of paper ...


...eat of dissolution it was necessary to calculate the calorimetry constant of the Styrofoam cup and lid used as it was clearly not a perfect calorimeter. 60 mL of room temperature deionized water was measured and poured in two beakers. One of the beakers was then heated using a hotplate until just before it began to boil. The temperatures of both beakers were then recorded using the temperature probe and were then combined in a Styrofoam calorimeter. It was left to sit for 5 minutes and the equilibrium temperature was measured. 100 mL of deionized water was measured in a beaker and combined with two grams of calcium chloride in the calorimeter. The deionized water temperature was measured just before adding the calcium chloride and throughout the heating process. When the heating curve appeared to level off the temperature was measured as the equilibrium temperature.

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