40-400 Upper mantle
400-650 Transition region
650-2700 Lower mantle
2700-2890 D" layer
2890-5150 Outer core
5150-6378 Inner Core
The crust varies in thickness throughout earth. It is thinner under oceans and usually thicker under continents. The inner core and crust are solid while the outer core and mantle layers are semi-fluid. The core is probably composed mostly of iron. Temperatures at the center of the core may be as high as 7500 Kelvin. The lower mantle is made of silicon, magnesium, oxygen, iron, calcium and aluminum. The earths chemical composition is made of 34.6% Iron, 29.5 % Oxygen, 15.2 % Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4 % Nickel, 1.9% Sulfur and 0.05% Titanium. However, the earths atmosphere is 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water. The oxygen in Earth 's atmosphere is sustained by living things because without life there would be no free oxygen.
Approximately 4.6 billion years ago, our solar system was just a solar nebula. Gravity collapsed the matter, forming the sun in the center of the nebula. As the sun came to be, the rest of the material began to clump up and small particles came together and became into bigger and better particles. Solar wind took light elements such as hydrogen and helium, and only left rocky materials such as earth. The solar winds led the rest of the materials to become into gas giants. This al...
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...se. One argument that supports this theory is the emergence of life soon after the bombardment period on earth between 4 and 3 billion years ago. It is believed that during this period earth went through a lot of meteor showers. The most early evidence for life is of 3.83 billion years ago which overlaps the bombardment phase. Meaning that all living things would face extinction. This contributes to the idea that life did not originate on earth. However, for there to have originating life from elsewhere also means there would have to be such environment as where it is able to support life. It is suggested that life outside of earth may be difficult to survive in but earth was also able to go through many extreme conditions. Some bacteria grow at temperatures as high as 113 degrees Celsius while other microbes can thrive at temperatures as low as -18 degrees Celsius.
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