Essay Dy-Yu Creek Watershed Study

Essay Dy-Yu Creek Watershed Study

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A model is a simplified representation of a system at some particular point in time or space intended to promote understanding of the real system [52]. Hydrologic models aid decision making and planning in several different ways. Models provide forecasts of current and alternative impacts on water quality, detail NPS processes, establish critical areas, rank alternative measures and are often the only means of predicting water quality impacts for non-monitored sites [53]. Some of the commonly used watershed-scale hydrologic and non-point source pollution model include: AGNPS, ANSWERS, HSPF, SWMM, STORM, and VAST. The followings are brief introduction of these models.

AGNPS (Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model) was developed by United States Department of Agriculture, North Central Soil Conservation Research Laboratory, Southeast Watershed Research Station, and Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. The AGNPS can be used to simulate either continuous or single storm event and is capable of calculating runoff, sediment and chemical contamination, and point and non-point source pollution. Data input is rather complicated which needs inputting 22 data for each cell with many operations and obtaining 24 output values at the watershed outlet including hydrology and nutrient items. AGNPS has been used in some domestic watersheds, such as Techi reservoir [54], Leeyutan reservoir [55], Chichiawang creek [56], Hsin-tien stream [57], Da-pu reservoir [58], etc.
ANSWERS (Areal Nonpoint Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation) was developed at Purdue University and is a model intended to simulate the behavior of watersheds having agriculture as their primary land use, during a...

... middle of paper ... in terms of their temporal scale, land use type, data intensiveness, and simulated items.
Based on the provided information, the above simulation models are diverse with various complexities, strengths and weaknesses and model selection becomes case-dependent. According to Borah and Weist [73], the model selection criteria for watershed models include: cost consideration, integration issues, user interface, and range of model applicability. This research selects HSPF based on the fact that HSPF is a public domain software, capable of integrating with GIS-based BASINS platform, providing user-friendly interfaces, wide ranges of application including estimating water qualities, flow volumes, and BMP placements. The following section will briefly describe the function of BASINS/HSPF and the model calibration and validation as well as some goodness-of-fit measures.

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