1. Freud’s conception of the latent and manifest content of dreams.
Freud was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and a theory explaining human behavior.
• Latent Content: It illustrates the hidden meaning of one’s unconscious thoughts, drives, and desires.
• Manifest Content: It the information that the conscious individual remembers experiencing.
2. Components of the psyche as proposed by Freud.
Freud developed a structural model of the mind comprising the entities.
• Id: It is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends. It acts according to the "pleasure principle which motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse.
• Ego: It is the organized, realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and the super-ego. It acts according to the reality principle; i.e. it seeks to please the id 's drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bring disappointment.
• Superego: It plays the critical and moralizing role. It demonstrates the reasoning and realizing of cultural rules, mainly taught by elders. Also, it controls our sense of right and wrong and guilt.
3. Defense Mechanisms:
• Repression: To keep disturbing thoughts from being conscious. Example: Oedipus complex.
• Denial: Blocking external events from awareness. Example: Alcoholics refusing that it is harmful for them to drink.
• Projection: Individuals attributing their unacceptable thoughts, behavior to another person.
• Displacement: Satisfying an impulse (usually aggression) through a substitute object or individual. Example: bullying someone weaker to boost one’s ego.
• Regression: A condition in which one feels stressed.
• Sublimation: Satisfying an impulse (us...
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...nt of each trait. This approach tends to use self-report personality questions, factor analysis etc.
10. Individualistic and Collectivistic People:
Cultures are typically divided into two categories: collectivist and individualist.
• Collectivistic Culture:
Promotes selflessness and unity.
Works for the community and rights of the family and society supersede the individual’s rights
Think what is best for the society rather than for individual selves.
Examples of countries with the collectivistic cultures include China, Japan, India, South Korea, etc.
• Individualistic Culture:
Promotes individual goals and ambitions.
Independence is revered and valued.
Individual rights are seen more important than the societal rights.
Examples of countries with the individualistic cultures include United States, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, Finland, etc.
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