Each year in the United States, about 13 out of every 10,000 babies are born with Down syndrome, also called trisomy 21 (Johnson). Being the “most common chromosome disorder and genetic cause of intellectual disability”, Down syndrome equally affects males and females as well as all different races (Johnson). In other words, Down syndrome does not show any preference for a specific gender or race. Unfortunately, those who are affected by Down syndrome experience a number of problems throughout their lives which limit their quality of life and health.
Down syndrome is caused by the existence of a third 21’s chromosome, shown in Figure 1. This can occur through one of three possible processes, all resulting in Down syndrome. The first and most common cause of Down syndrome occurs during cell division and involves the failure of all chromosomes to separate properly, resulting in an extra chromosome in the daughter cell (Down). This process can be referred to as nondisjunction (Down). The second cause, called cell line mosaicism, is the result of the abnormal division of a single cell. Because of this, those affected by mosaic Down syndrome have cells with normal numbers of chromosomes as well as cells with one extra chromosome (Down). “Individuals who are mosaic for trisomy 21 typically have less severe signs and symptoms of the disorder” (Down). The third cause of Down syndrome is called Chromosome translocation and involves a structural problem with the 21st chromosome rather than a numerical problem (Down). Chromosome translocation occurs when two 21 chromosomes become attached, leaving the chromosome number technically normal but still resulting in Down syndrome (Down). The Mosaic and Chromoso...
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Down syndrome. (2013). In K. L. Lerner & B. W. Lerner (Eds.), The gale encyclopedia of science (4th ed.). Retrieved from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=GALE%7C00000000MXBF&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2644030714&source=Bookmark&u=west34111&jsid=cc58e965c61553af55b9718f4fab35fb
Johnson, P. A. (2011). Down syndrome. In L. J. Fundukian (Ed.), The gale encyclopedia of medicine (4th ed.). Retrieved from Gale Science in Context database. (Accession No. GALE|DU2601000443)
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- History: Down Syndrome was discovered in 1866 by a British physician named John Langdon Down, which is where the name Down Syndrome came from. This genetic disorder was first referred to as Mongolism. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early 1970s. In 1959, a French Pediatrician/Geneticist Professor Jerome Lejeune had discovered that people with this disorder have one extra chromosome. In the 1960s when children with Down Syndrome were born, they were put into institutions right after birth.... [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]
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