Down 's Syndrome : A Distinct Form Of Mental Disabilities Essay

Down 's Syndrome : A Distinct Form Of Mental Disabilities Essay

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In 1862, Down’s Syndrome was first categorized as a distinct form of mental disabilities by John Langdon Down. Almost eight years later, in 1944, it was separated from cretinism by Edourd Seguin. Down’s Syndrome becomes the most recognized mental disability by the twentieth century.
By this time, many people suffering from Down’s Syndrome were sent to mental institutions. The medical problems were rarely ever treated. The sufferers quickly died in their infancy or in early adulthood. The eugenics movement marked a change in the way Down’s Syndrome’s patients were treated. In a whopping 33 of the US states, people with Down’s Syndrome were forced to go through sterilizations. Many other countries adopted this practice as well. In Nazi Germany people with the disease and other associated form of disabilities were forced to go through forced euthanization.
Chromosomal disabilities (through shapes and numbers) were recognizable with the discovery of karyotype practices in the 50s. Jerome Lejeune was the first to point out the Down’s Syndrome resulted because of an extra chromosome in 1959. His colleague Marthe Gautier soon disputed this claim and was awarded Grand Prize by the SCFFHG for making the discovery. Resultantly, Down’s Syndrome became commonly known as trisomy 21. The syndrome is present in all races, rarely recurs and is found more commonly in children who associate with older maternal age.
Children with Down’s Syndrome suffer from this disease for various reasons, the most common of which are Trisomy 21, Translocation and Mosaicism.

Trisomy 21 is the first reason which means that there is an error in cell division due to which the body comes with an extra copy of chromosome 21. The error is commonly known as non disju...

... middle of paper ...

...ering the test will count extra cells for confirmation. The figures are usually presented as percentages. If, for example, there are 50 cells, but only ten are found to be at their normal levels, the doctor will say that the patient is suffering from an eighty percent Mosaicism.
Conclusively, it can be stated that there are three main reasons behind Down Syndrome. These include Trisomy 21, translocation and mosaicism. In the first type, there is an extra copy of the chromosome 21 in each cell. This is the most common form of Down syndrome. In translocation, there is still an extra cell, but one of them is attached to the other (either chromosome 13, 14, 15, 21 or 22). Lastly, in Mosaicism, some cells have the extra copy of the chromosome 21 while others will not have it. With ongoing research, more reasons behind the disability are bound to be discovered.

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