Domestic violence against women is a foremost concern that affects a woman’s health, as well as having an effect on and in her environment such as her home and within the community in which she lives; it also affects her physically, mentally, and spiritually.
There are many types of abuse that a woman may experience by her perpetrator in addition to physical abuse; there is financial abuse, spiritual abuse, and coercive abuse that utilizes power and control. “The prevalence of domestic abuse against women has been estimated as high as one in four” (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 95). However, numerous empirical studies signify that an estimated 75-97% of violent, coercive controls in heterosexual relationships are perpetrated predominantly by men (Crossman, Hardesty, and Raffaelli 455). Research studies on intimate violence and domestic violence relies mostly on “violent, coercive control [which] involves a variety of tactics to exert power and control over one’s partner, including physical assault, sexual coercion, intimidation, isolation, or any means to get one’s partner to do something they do not want to do.” (Johnson, 2008; Stark, 2007 in Crossman, Hardesty, and Raffaelli 455). Additionally, feminist theorists suggest that violent, coercive control is an effect of macro-level risk factors, gender inequalities in hierarchy of high-ranking social constructs that produce and sustain power differences and patriarchy (Graham-Kevan & Archer, 2003; Johnson, 2008 in Crossman, Hardesty, and Raffaelli 455).
One may also postulate that a woman’s body is her personal “environment” as well, and the impact of domestic violence may also cause biological changes in her environment through the experience of stress and ab...
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... answers to domestic violence the constructs of alternate strategies and the recommendations for future efforts are supported by the current (Portwood and Finkel Heany 237) hypothesis along with scientific empirical findings. The hypothesis of the article is to generate correlates to the understanding of intimate partner violence as a pervasive societal problem as an anti-violence problem. The domestic violence phenomenon is complex to the measure in which it is an infliction by approaches and by views that saturate not only system approaches and the principle constructs of people, and in order to communicate effective answers (Portwood and Heany 246). Moreover, emphasis that relies on systems may inadvertently generate violence as systems are trying to abolish domestic and intimate partner violence.
Domestic Violence Coercive Control Model (Milana 2016)
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