I chose to analyze this research article which tries to answer if major depressive disorders in parents lead to specific fears and phobias in offspring, because I like psychology and I wanted an article that was related some way to this interest.
Before this research two studies were conducted that reported an increased risk of phobias in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) when compared to children of normal parents. These findings suggested a connection between phobias and depression. But more research was needed because it was unknown the contribution of the existence of varies anxiety disorders in parents to such relationship. Another study (this time adolescents) found the certain fears, no phobias, predicted later risk to develop MDD. The authors stated that little was known about the factors that lead to the development of fears and phobias in children and adolescents and that was unknown if associations between parent MDD and child anxiety show the mixing influence of parent anxiety disorder.
The hypothesis for this study was that fears and phobias were more prevalent in offspring of parents with MDD as well as parents with anxiety disorders, and in parents with both disorders as compared with children of normal (control) parents. The research question was the title of this article: Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?
Participants and Procedure
Participants came from a high-risk study of offspring of parents with anxiety and/or mood disorders and non- ill parents. Ill parents were admitted to mood disorders clinics in the New York area after the study. The children were between 6 and 17 years, in total 318, and they c...
... middle of paper ...
... children). Previous studies had a larger population sample. The authors mentioned a studied that had over 2000 subjects.
I suggest that for future studies researchers use a bigger sample and gather the information directly from the offspring.
On the other hand, the researchers found an increased of specific fears in offspring of parents with both major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. They suggested that this could be related to impairment in parenting or family functioning due to parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading for illness, or both. Then, the researchers hypothesized that “a history of both anxiety and depression among parents may indicate greater susceptibility to psychopathology in offspring” (382).
This assignment was very helpful because learn to find, read and understand the basic parts of a research article and to cite it.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Introduction Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes (MDE) without a history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. Episodes of substance induced mood disorder and mood disorder due to a general medical condition do not count toward a diagnosis of MDD nor do episodes that may be better accounted for by schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. A MDE is defined by a period of at least two weeks during which an individual either experiences a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities.... [tags: Treating Major Depressive Disorder]
3407 words (9.7 pages)
- It happens often that individuals believe they are suffering through depression when in reality, they are simply feeling sad. Sadness is caused by an event that is happening in the moment in contrast to MDD (Major depressive disorder), when the individual is suffering through a constant feeling of mixed emotions for a long period of time. MDD is a mood disorder that causes one to feel constantly sad and lonely. It also causes a loss of interest in past hobbies and activities, and affects the way one feels, thinks and behaves.... [tags: Depression, Saddness, Mental Health, Disorder]
1246 words (3.6 pages)
- Maternal obesity induce offspring with risk of cardiovascular disease Introduction: The rate of obesity for the human population has shown to be increased expeditiously in the past decades. It has continuously raised health concerns among the world, and is likely to remain in times to come. This phenomenon is primarily due to the lifestyle changes resulting in high-energy intake coupling with decreased physical activity (Cameron et al. 2003). Obesity is identified by the high adipose tissue, resulting in the body mass index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30kg/m.... [tags: body mass index, arterial blood vessels]
1708 words (4.9 pages)
- ... Difficulty concentrating and indecisive decision making that is outside the person’s baseline skillset. Lastly, preoccupied thoughts of dying and attempts of suicide are symptoms that one needs to seek medical and or psychiatric treatment. Suicide attempters with more than one diagnosed mental disorder are 18 times more likely to commit suicide (Wunderlich. 1998). People can experience depression at any stage of life. Depression can run in family genes, and considered risk factors; as well as, difficult life events such as a break-up, a loss of a job, or the death of a love one.... [tags: blues, feeling sad, guilt, worthless]
530 words (1.5 pages)
- This paper reviews the studies evaluating the relationship between endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder. Individuals with depression were found to have lower levels of beta-endorphins. The findings were limited by methodological differences. Alternatives to antidepressants that potentially increased beta-endorphin levels were reviewed. This included exercise, acupuncture, and electroconvulsive therapy. Each of these modalities was shown to increase beta-endorphin levels although the results were not conclusive.... [tags: Mental Health ]
2185 words (6.2 pages)
- Major Depressive Disorder or MDD is a very common clinical condition that affects millions of people every year. According to the Agency for Health Care Policy & Research, “ depression is under diagnosed & untreated by most medical doctors, despite the fact that it can almost always be treated successfully. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV); A person who suffers from this disorder must have a depressed mood, or have lost interest in things that would have normally brought them pleasure; for a minimum of two weeks.... [tags: Mental Disorders Psychology]
1197 words (3.4 pages)
- Introduction Major Depressive Disorder defined by DSM-IV-TR (2000) “is characterised by one or more Major Depressive Episodes (i.e., at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest accompanied by at least four additional symptoms of depression)”. Major Depressive Disorder affects twice as many women as men and for both genders it is most common in those who are 25-44 years of age (All About Depression.com 2011). In the case of 65 year old Mrs Adele Harper who was diagnosed at age 43, has been suffering with this disorder for many years and has now been admitted to the Acute Psychiatric ward from the Emergency Department after her daughter had found her dishevelled and extremely seate... [tags: Characteristics, Case Study, Nursing]
1770 words (5.1 pages)
- Bipolar disorder, (manic-depressive disorder) is associated with mood swings that range from the lows of depression to the highs of mania. When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts in the other direction, you may feel euphoric and full of energy. Mood shifts may occur only a few times a year, or as often as several times a day. In some cases, bipolar disorder causes symptoms of depression and mania at the same time (Bipolar Disorder, 2013).... [tags: manic-depressive disorder]
1051 words (3 pages)
- As many as 19 million Americans million are affected by mood disorders ( The two main types of mood disorders are bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder which are described as disturbances in mood, behavior and emotion.“ Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behavior, which may include psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations” (Craddock, Jones 1999).... [tags: Psychology, Bipolar, Depressive Disorder]
1671 words (4.8 pages)
- Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymic disorder, also known as cyclothymia, is a relatively mild form of bipolar II disorder characterized by mood swings that may appear to be almost within the normal range of emotions. These mood swings range from mild depression, or dysthymia, to mania of low intensity, or hypomania. It is possible for cyclothymia to go undiagnosed, and for individuals with the disorder to be unaware that they have a treatable disease. Individuals with cyclothymia may experience episodes of low-level depression, known as dysthymia; periods of intense energy, creativity, and/or irritability, known as hypomania; or they may alternate between both mood states.... [tags: Health Disorder Bipolar]
969 words (2.8 pages)