Do Implanted Embryonic Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson's Disease in Patients Provide Relief or Not

Do Implanted Embryonic Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson's Disease in Patients Provide Relief or Not

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The purpose of this paper was to describe the differences in neural activity in the motor circuit on animal subjects with hypo and hyperkinetic disorders. Hyperkinetic disorders are disorders that cause problems with movement initiation and reduce voluntary movements. While hyperkinetic disorders cause too much involuntary movements. There have been many primate models of Parkinson's disease but the one caused by MPTP is the one that is most alike to Parkinson's disease found in humans. Animals that are treated with MPTP develop symptoms that are similar to people with Parkinson's disease such as Akinesia, Bradykinesia, flexed posture, muscle rigidity, and postural tremor. Not all monkeys develop the tremor characteristic but the African green monkey does get the resting tremor in most of the cases. A significant finding was that there was a increase in tonic neuronal discharge in Globus Pallidus and STN neurons after MPTP treatment. Changes in neuronal activity are consistent with other evidence that shows how losing dopamine results in an increase in transportation through indirect pathway and a decrease in transportation through the indirect pathway. The changes in the basal ganglia could be the cause of the symptoms shown by Parkinson's patients. Reduced tonic activity of neurons reduces the response of the precentral motor neurons that are occupied by motor circuit. Increased gain and decreased selectivity may be the cause of involuntary movement because it messes up the normal processing of involuntary movement. Also changed activity in the basal ganglia could result in slowness of movements and reflexes which is known as bradykinesia. An increase in tonic inhibition of thalamic neurons from the GPI could reduce responsiven...

... middle of paper ... just yet. Some of the side effects are vomiting, nausea, loss of apetite, changes in color of pee, also mental changes. The good effects it has is reduces rigidity and tremors. Another method tried to treat Parkinson's disease was implanting embryonic dopamine into subjects to relieve their symptoms. The results were that if the subject was 60 years or younger they have relieve of symptoms but if they were older the disease would actual start to get worse. As for side effects there were more for the group that got the transplant than the sham surgery. Also the brain areas that are related to Parkinson's disease are the Basal Ganglia, Globus Pallidus, and STN. Also changes in the Basal Ganglia could be the cause for the symptoms that Parkinson's disease patients show. Another thing is that damage to the STN would result in relief of akinesia and bradykinesia.

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