In his work, The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith reasons that division of labor represents an increase in the productivity of a society, and he accredits this increase to three specific consequences. Adam states that, “the greatest improvements in the productive powers of labour seem to have been the effects of the division of labor” (Ch. 1). He exemplifies this claim by describing the trade of pin-making, and how, by splitting up the process into specialized jobs, people can make more pins in less time. Smith argues that this increase due to specialization “is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase in dexterity…secondly...
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...urkheim fails to see that the division of labor leads to a dangerous class system. However, Durkheim argues that classes will be content as long as the division of labor is not regulated (103). Regulations can cause the lower class to become dissatisfied and then “civil wars arise” (103). He goes on to say that in order to avoid this, the division of labor must be natural and not forced. So, as long as there are no rules to specialization, the class system should not be an issue.
Overall, Smith believes the division of labor is beneficial to productivity, Marx and Engels believe it extinguishes individuals, and Durkheim touches on both of these aspects while incorporating new ideas, making his argument superior. The division of labor can be analyzed in many ways, but according to Durkheim, good will come if everyone plays their role as “an organ of society” (105).
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