The United States population continues to increase in racial and ethnic diversity, therefore, it is pertinent that mental health professionals tailor their services to the needs of various cultural populations (Constantine, Kindaichi, Arorash, Donnelly, & Jung, 2002). The awareness that ethnic minorities experience negative consequences from being oppressed, resulted in the multicultural competence pedagogy and has helped counselors identify effective strategies to generate social change (Hage, 2003; Vera & Speight, 2003). Social norms that cause these injustices are identified, allowing for ethnic minorities to constitute and embrace empowerment. Moreover, this consciousness helps prevent therapists own bias’ from playing potentially oppressive roles stemming from their own worldview and builds on an understanding of their diverse clients life experiences (Sue & Sue, 2012). Counselors who commit themselves to social justice, value the fairness and equity in treatment and rights for marginalized individuals. According to Sue & Sue (2012), “an enlightened approach that acknowledges potential oppression in the manifestation, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment is best accomplished by taking a social justice approach,” which may be by challenging traditional models of therapy (Kindle Location 2919).
Cultural perspectives, sociopolitical influences, and externality may determine how individuals formulate their locus of control/local responsibility, which in turn, constructs their worldview. Mental health professionals who are not multiculturally competent may interpret socially devalued groups who display very strong external control beliefs “as being inherently apathetic, procrastinating, lazy, depressed, or anxious about ...
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...ustice Framework: Implications for School Counselors and Educators. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 1(2), 14-30.
Hage, S. M. (2003). Reaffirming the unique identity of counseling psychology: Opting for the "Road less traveled by." The Counseling Psychologist, 31, 555-563.
Hassouneh, D. M., & Kulwicki, A. (2007). Mental health, discrimination, and trauma in Arab Muslim women living in the U.S.: A pilot study. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture, 10, 257-262.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13694670600630556.
Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek (2003). Advocacy Competencies. ACA Governing Council. Retrieved on November 21, 2013 from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Competencies/Advocacy_Competencies.pdf
Sue, Derald Wing; Sue, David (2012-07-10). Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice (Wiley Desktop Editions). Wiley. Kindle Edition.
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