Kant defined a lie as an untruthful declaration. According to him, a declaration is made by a statement which invites another person to believe whatever that is said is true. Kant considered a declaration to be untruthful if a person makes a statement which does not correspond to whatever he or she believed to be true and ...
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...t, Aristotle and Bok have examined the vice of lying or dishonesty and they expressed different views about it. According to Kant, lying is always morally wrong and people should refrain from telling lies. He further points out that a person is considered to have lied if he or she makes untruthful declaration and invites another person to believe that whatever that he or she says is true. On the other hand, Aristotle held that lying is always not morally wrong and there are certain situations when it is permissible. Bok proposed an approach that she termed as public test to be used to establish if lying is permissible for institutions and probing of one conscience in case of small-scale lies/personal lies. Personally, I believe it is permissible if it will minimize harms on the person telling it and on others and at the same time maximize benefits.
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