Essay on Different Types Of Granulocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils And Basophils

Essay on Different Types Of Granulocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils And Basophils

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1.) A.) There are three different types of granulocytes; neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils. They are all fairly short lived, surviving for only a few days and all increase during immune responses. If one of these granulocytes were abnormal or missing, the worst outcome for the patient would be if it were the neutrophils. Neutrophils are the most numerous and most important cells in the innate immune response. Neutrophils take up microorganisms but phagocytosis and destroy them in intracellular vesicles using degradative enzymes. They have the greatest phagocytic activity among all granulocytes and are the most immediately involved in the innate immune response against infections. Deficiencies in neutrophils can lead to overwhelming bacterial infections, which can eventually lead to death. If neutrophils were missing or low, it could also lead to neutropenia, which is a blood condition when neutrophils are low and results in your body not being able to fight off bacteria and there would also be the absence of inflammation. Neutrophils are attracted to the site of infection and allow plasma proteins to enter the tissue through the blood and cause an inflammatory response. Without this response, there would be no increase in the destruction of invading microorganisms, no local blood clotting to prevent spread of infection and no repair of injured tissue. This could lead to serious, life threatening issues such as sepsis and death. Basophils and eosinophil’s wouldn’t lead to as serious of an outcome because they are less abundant than neutrophils and are important when there is need for defense against parasites and anti-parasite immunity which may be seen less than bacterial infections. Eosinophil’s and basophils are also import...

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...omatic L265P mutation that is found in other kinds of blood cancers. Patients with this disorder have increased levels of IgM in the blood and include diffuse large B cell lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Mutations in NEMO, a protein involved in the MyD88 pathway, causes a disease called X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodefiency, or also known as NEMO deficiency which can be characterized by development defects and immunodeficiency. In a situation in which MyD88 was absent, then NOD like receptors could compensate the absence. NOD like receptors are intracellular sensors and activate NFkB to initiate the same inflammatory response that the TLRs do. Since MyD88 stimulates signals to TLRS, which then initiate inflammatory responses, NOD like receptors can be used in its place because they also initiate these responses (Murphy, 2012, pp. 90-92).

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