Essay PreviewMore ↓
How to Cite this Page
"Different Theories of Human Resource Management." 123HelpMe.com. 15 Jul 2018
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- There are several theories that examine an organization and it’s approach to managing work in an effort to develop efficiency and increase production. Two classical approaches to management are Taylor’s scientific management theory and Weber's bureaucratic management theory. Both men are considered pioneers of in the study of management. Taylor’s scientific approach is based on the planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Factories are managed through scientific methods and productivity is increase through a mutual trust between management and workers.... [tags: Bureaucratic and Scientific Management]
1089 words (3.1 pages)
- Human resources are considered to be a potential source for competitive advantage. It is seen as the accumulation stock of knowledge; skills and abilities that individual possess which the firm has built over years through identifiable expertise (Cappelli and Singh, 1992). The success of firms can be measured from the ability to synthesise the firm’s HR with strategic objectives of the organisation. According to Klein et al. (1991:11), ‘If expertise manifestation behaviour is consistent on the formation of skills, it becomes a basis for competitive advantage’.... [tags: Business, International Human Resources]
2250 words (6.4 pages)
- Hiring Human Resource Professionals When looking to hire a Human Resource professional, we use dynamic measures in the hiring process. It is our belief that these processionals are analyzed using leadership trait theories and situational theories. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. For example, traits like extraversion, self-confidence, and courage are all traits that could potentially be linked to great leaders. Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables.... [tags: theories, process, leadership]
1871 words (5.3 pages)
- Human Resource Management Businesses use different motivational techniques to keep employees happy, it is important to keep employees happy so that they work effectively and efficiently. The HR department will spend lots on different ideas to try and keep their employees working hard often including rewards for hard work or constant attendance or even by in some cases punishing workers for not working to their potential. I will look into different cultures, motivational theories and techniques, job satisfaction, the importance of management styles, is money the only motivator and employee demotivation.... [tags: Business Management Studies Essays]
4004 words (11.4 pages)
- The Employment relationship is the only reason public and private limited organisations work effectively. The Employment relationship is a fragile tie between an employer “management” and employee “worker”. This relationship can be affected by 3 factors which are interests, control and motivation. Employers have to balance these factors in order to maintain a productive working relationship. Employment relationship works like any other relationship, commitment is required from both sides. In this case the employer and employee need to have a form of understanding and objectives need to be in common.... [tags: Business HR]
1724 words (4.9 pages)
- Within my assignment I would be looking at the effective operation of the human resource management, in terms of recruitment, as well as selection. Within these topics I would be critically discuss how they contribute to organisations, as well as the effect they have on the business. Select two topics from the list below and critically discuss how they contribute to the effective operation of the Human Resouce Management function. Your discussion must include theories and organisational examples.... [tags: Operation, Recruitment, Selection]
1133 words (3.2 pages)
- In this report I will be addressing the problems and how Volvo had tackled those problems with the help of Motivational theories. The report will also include some motivational techniques, which will help to make the jobs more interesting and I have divided the report into four different sections, which are as follows: Section A In this section I will be talking about the reason why Volvo had made the change the working practices at Kalmar and what was its aspiration behind the changes. Section B In this section I will be talking about the changes made at Kalmar plantation and if they were successful or not, and if they were than, why was it so.... [tags: Business and Management Studies]
2659 words (7.6 pages)
- Human Resource Management The concept HR-function and its theoretical prospective (meaning, content, levels, etc.). Analysis of how the HR-function should be organized according to HRM-theories and the way the HR-function is organized in practice within different organizations. Identification of changes (direct and indirect) influencing the HRM function. Discussion of the ways how these changes impact the HRM function, and how the HRM function might respond to the changes. The HR-function can be understood by looking at which HRM-activities are performed by which individuals in a company.... [tags: Business HR Human Resources]
1980 words (5.7 pages)
- Deming’s 14 points were first applied to Japan and United States manufacturing but the philosophy can be applied to many different industries now. The theories can be applied to healthcare, including Long Term Acute Care Hospitals (LTACH). These types of hospitals are not as common to people, but were created to deliver care based on patient’s needs. This paper will look at an LTACH located in Denver and like many healthcare facilities, employee morale is down due budget cuts and the rising cost of healthcare.... [tags: Business Management ]
1066 words (3 pages)
- Management is considered an important part in any business or corporate industries. A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of others so the organization goals can be accomplishes with no problems. Also, the term Management is refer to group of people involved in the four general functions such as: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling and Coordinating any source. Be advised that the four function of management are throughout the organization and are highly integrated, the nature of how the four function of management are carried out must changed to accommodate a "new Paradigm".... [tags: Business Management]
1296 words (3.7 pages)
II.a) Vertical Integration goes hand in hand with the Best-fit school approach
In fact, vertical integration, conceptualized by Torrington and Hall (1998), can be scaled by five different levels where integration varies in accordance with the relationship between the organization strategy and the HR strategy. Thus, we have a first level called separation where there is no link between HR and organization strategy. Then we have the ‘fit’ level, where people actually recognize HR strategy as a part of the organization strategy. Another upper level of vertical integration is the ‘dialogue’ level where HR strategy is useful for communication and debate. Then we can look at the ‘holistic’ level that considers both of the strategies as a whole, where the relationship is strong and the links are plentiful. Finally, there is the last level of vertical integration, the ‘HR driven’ level, where the strategy of the organization is conducted by the HR strategy. The concept of ‘vertical integration’ goes hand in hand with the best-fit approach to strategic HRM. The contingency school (best-fit) of SHRM takes into account several models like the ‘lifecycle model’ or the ‘competitive advantage model’ where the level of vertical integration of the HR strategy and organization strategy are similar to what was described earlier. Indeed, the best-fit approach emphasizes the relationship between the HR policies and the way to reach company’s goals, considering the external environment of the company. After assessing this kind of approach, which may appear to be an inflexible model of SHRM, and the effect of the different rapidly changing external factors, we can see that the life cycle models and competitive advantage models are not relevant enough in a strategy where the company’s goals are becoming more difficult to reach. However, those models, mixed with other models that can improve the flexibility of the approach, can help tremendously by increasing the conjugation of HRM strategies with organization strategies. Another limit of the best-fit approach is the trend of over simplification of the organizational reality; in effect, the best-fit models try to simplify the factors that influence business strategy and business goals. The greatest limit of this approach originates from the very beginning, with the hypothesis. Organizations are influenced by internal and external complex factors which can cause the frequent changing of environmental and implementation issues.
II.b) An evolution of ‘tight’ fit models introducing flexibility: configurational approach
In response to this limit, amongst others, Delery and Doty (1996:808) propose the ‘configurational model’ where horizontal integration (the internal development of HR strategy) is introduced for aiming toward better implementation of vertical integration. “The significant difference here between the contingency approach and the configurational approach is that these configurations represent ‘non-linear synergistic effects and higher-order interactions’ that can result in maximum performance”. Moreover, “as Marchington and Wilkinson (2002:222) note, the key point about the configurational perspective is that it ‘seeks to derive an internally consistent set of HR practices that maximize horizontal integration and then link these to alternative strategic configurations in order to maximize ‘vertical integration’”. Organizations have to develop HR system in order to achieve both horizontal and vertical integrations.
II.c) The resource-based approach: focusing on internal resources
Another view of SHRM exists where the internal resources are the principal factor for a sustainable competitive advantage. In effect, the value brought by human resource is the core of this approach where flexibility is optimized in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Human resource, by adding value, uniqueness and the most effective way to use resources, tend to increase the competitive advantage of a company in comparison to another. Horizontal integration is one of the main factors HR strategy uses to achieve the organizational strategy and reach the planned organization’s goals. However, horizontal integration cannot be considered a sole factor leading to the achievement of an organization’s goals. There first comes a limit to this approach. It is agreed that human resources do the implementation of organizational strategy, but it can only be properly done if the external environment allows the human resources and the organization to do so (Miller and Shamsie, 1996; Porter, 1991). The resource-based view tends to ignore the baseline of specific industries as it takes into account the differences of firms in the same sector as a competitive advantage. However, competitive advantages are gained by the ‘rightsizing’ process (Hamel and Prahalad, 1993) which implies that an organization obtains more output from its existing resources and optimizes the way in which they are used. Therefore, it is the way in which these resources are used, along with the same baseline in an industry, which create the competitive advantages rather than the differences between the firms.
II.d) Best practice SHRM, the universalist approach
This view of SHRM argues "that all organizations will benefit and see improvements in organizational performance if they identify, gain commitment to and implement a set of best HRM practices". In this approach, the ‘high commitment’ concept links with human capital, as it must have a high level of commitment, enforced by the ‘ideal set of practices’ (Guest, 1997). This means that the best set of HR practices must improve the productivity and effectiveness of human capital, place emphasis on any motivation made toward human capital, and an aim to reach the firm’s goals. Rewarding practices have to be properly set and implemented, targeting the idea of high commitment and satisfaction of employees. “A key element of best-practice is horizontal integration and congruence between policies”. This concept of a ‘universal best practices set’ is disputable as it is a non-specific and non-accurate definition of HR policies that have to be applied. Indeed, the best practice models are constituted by different policies that vary significantly from one model to another. Performances of this approach in organizations are, because of the difficulty of generalization and conceptualization, very hard to measure as they are determined by several different factors. Even in the case of Pfeffer (1994, 1998) who advocated for a universal best practices set, it is hard to see if the performances are due to the implementation of this view of SHRM or not. Conclusion Several different approaches can be discussed in relation to which hypotheses are taken into account. However, every approach aims toward the same core goal: business effectiveness and profitability. Even though each model has its own limits, they have been empirically successfully assessed. The final argument advocated for strategic HRM is that, in relation to internal and external environment differences between industries, the best way to integrate SHRM management strategy is to blur the differences between the models and to implement them in a complementary view.