The studies about leadership have evolved since a century ago from trait approach to behavioral approach, and then contingency approach for finding and enhancing leadership effectiveness (Chemers, 1995; McLaurin & Al Amri, 2008). The earliest studies of leadership effectiveness focused on personality as leaders are different from ordinary people or above average which was trait approach in which researchers found that it did not relevantly sustain leadership effectiveness (Chemers, 1995). Leadership studies and researches were extended to study and research on personal behaviors as leadership styles such as Lewin and his associates proposed three leadership ...
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Mclaurin, J. R., & Al Amri, M. B. (2008). Developing an understanding of charismatic and transformational leadership. Allied Academies International Conference, Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict (AOCCC), 13(2), 15-19.
Miller, R. L., Butler, J., & Consentino, C. (2004). Fellowership effectiveness: An extension of Fiedler’s contingency model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(3/4), 362-368. doi: 10.1108/01437730410538680
Navahandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Ogawa, R. T., & Bossert, S. T. (1995). Leadership as an organizational quality. Educational Administration Quarterly, 31(2), 224-243. doi: 10.1177/0013161X95031002004
Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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