Different Concentrations Of Sodium Chloride Solutions And Its Affect On Electrical Conductivity

Different Concentrations Of Sodium Chloride Solutions And Its Affect On Electrical Conductivity

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Different Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Solutions and its Affect on Electrical Conductivity

Introduction
Electrical conductivity refers to a substances ability to carry moving electrons (conduct electricity). In order to do so, there must be a supply of delocalised electrons. While in a solid state, ionic substances can not conduct electricity as there are no delocalised electrons or free/mobile ions to act as charge carriers. In an aqueous ionic solution, the H2O molecules break apart the crystal lattice structure of the ionic substance into individual ions, surrounding each ion in a jacket of hydration. Below is the equation that describes the dissociation of NaCl when in H2O solvent.

Each dissociated ion can now act as a charge carrier, allowing the solution to conduct electricity. Substances that produce ions in solution are called electrolytes and the strength of the electrolyte depends on how well it can break apart into ions when dissolved in a solvent. Soluble ionic salts are labelled as strong electrolytes as they are able to completely dissociate from each other.

In a plate electrode system, one electrode will have a net negative charge (anode) and the other will have a net positive charge (cathode). When introduced into an ionic solution, positively charged ions will be electrostatically attracted to the anode and the negatively charged ions will be electrostatically attracted to the cathode. This act of moving ions means that charges are able to move from anode to the cathode and complete the circuit. These moving ions are essentially the same as moving electrons (electricity). This process of putting electrodes into a solution, using a direct electric current (D.C.), and separating chemicals based on their cha...


... middle of paper ...


...Cl was measured using a graduated cylinder and a pipette, and poured into a 250 mL beaker. The Zinc plate electrodes were suspended in the beaker. See figure 1.2.

The D.C. power supply was turned on and was set on 12 V. Because the displayed values on the ammeter were constantly fluctuating, the highest value on the ammeter was recorded. The zinc plate electrode system was removed and the electrodes were cleaned with emery paper. This process was repeated for each new concentration of NaCl solution but using the correct volume of solution.

Note: The multimeter used did not record electrical conductivity. The original recorded values only measured the electrical current (mA) and the purpose of the experiment was to find out the electrical conductivity. These values were converted from electrical current to electrical conductivity using the facts and formulae below.

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