Electrical conductivity refers to a substances ability to carry moving electrons (conduct electricity). In order to do so, there must be a supply of delocalised electrons. While in a solid state, ionic substances can not conduct electricity as there are no delocalised electrons or free/mobile ions to act as charge carriers. In an aqueous ionic solution, the H2O molecules break apart the crystal lattice structure of the ionic substance into individual ions, surrounding each ion in a jacket of hydration. Below is the equation that describes the dissociation of NaCl when in H2O solvent.
Each dissociated ion can now act as a charge carrier, allowing the solution to conduct electricity. Substances that produce ions in solution are called electrolytes and the strength of the electrolyte depends on how well it can break apart into ions when dissolved in a solvent. Soluble ionic salts are labelled as strong electrolytes as they are able to completely dissociate from each other.
In a plate electrode system, one electrode will have a net negative charge (anode) and the other will have a net positive charge (cathode). When introduced into an ionic solution, positively charged ions will be electrostatically attracted to the anode and the negatively charged ions will be electrostatically attracted to the cathode. This act of moving ions means that charges are able to move from anode to the cathode and complete the circuit. These moving ions are essentially the same as moving electrons (electricity). This process of putting electrodes into a solution, using a direct electric current (D.C.), and separating chemicals based on their cha...
... middle of paper ...
...Cl was measured using a graduated cylinder and a pipette, and poured into a 250 mL beaker. The Zinc plate electrodes were suspended in the beaker. See figure 1.2.
The D.C. power supply was turned on and was set on 12 V. Because the displayed values on the ammeter were constantly fluctuating, the highest value on the ammeter was recorded. The zinc plate electrode system was removed and the electrodes were cleaned with emery paper. This process was repeated for each new concentration of NaCl solution but using the correct volume of solution.
Note: The multimeter used did not record electrical conductivity. The original recorded values only measured the electrical current (mA) and the purpose of the experiment was to find out the electrical conductivity. These values were converted from electrical current to electrical conductivity using the facts and formulae below.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- It is highly beneficial to be able to calculate the concentration of a saturated solution. Indeed, knowledge of the concentration is required to calculate solute solubility and if precipitates will form when the solution is mixed with other reagents. This has many applications in industrial processes. For these reasons, this experiments aims to determine the concentration of a saturated barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) solution by conductometric titration and gravimetric analysis. Conductometric titration involve examining the change in Ba(OH)2 (aq) conductivity as sulphuric acid is added.... [tags: Titration, Solubility, Concentration, Solution]
1513 words (4.3 pages)
- If the mass of sodium chloride increases, then the growth in the length of the embryo root decreases. This is because the greater the concentration, the less imbibition for the bean to absorb water for metabolic reaction. Since beans has hormones that inhibits bean germination, it requires a water to wash away the hormone for germination to occur. As more sodium chloride is dissolved in the water, the table salt inhibits imbibition so the hormone is remained within the bean. Additionally, once the bean stops germination, the presence of oxygen is meaningless even though aerobic cell respiration occurs in germination to generate a net yield of 38 ATP per glucose.... [tags: Sodium chloride, Water, Salt, Sodium]
1569 words (4.5 pages)
- The four different dialysis tubes containing four different concentrations of sucrose/ water solutions, in two different concentrations of solutions was a great representation of osmosis (Fig. 2). The water in the dialysis tubing of A, (1%) left the areas of low concentration in attempts to equal out the areas of high concentration of sucrose (10%), in the container to reach equilibrium. The bag had started with a total mass of 10.4g and was weighed in 15 minute intervals for an hour. In the first 15 minutes, bag A had weighed 10.2g, losing .2g of water.... [tags: Concentration, Solution, Tonicity, Chemistry]
771 words (2.2 pages)
- Purpose: The following experiment was conducted to prepare standardized solution of sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) and to determine the concentration of given unknown sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution. Analysis: This experiment is divided into two parts. In the first part; the standardized solution of sodium hydroxide is prepared by titrating it with base Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). Phenolphthalein (range 8.3 to 10.0) is used as indicator to determine whether the titration is completed. Part A: Standardization of a sodium hydroxide solution NaOH Code sample code: R1 Trial 1 Mass of KHP transferred = 0.41 g Volume of NaOH used = 21.14 mL Molar mass of KHP = 204.22 g/mol No.... [tags: Sodium hydroxide, PH, Pink]
1424 words (4.1 pages)
- ... Our final concentration of the solution was 48 g/100cc of water. By looking at the class data, we can see that solubility is indeed a characteristic property. Six of the ten sodium chloride groups found the solubility of sodium chloride to be statistically 36g/100cc of water, with a +3g/100cc margin of error. Three of the four groups outside this margin of error had solubilities in the forties, 42, 48, 49g/100cc. These three groups made an experimental error that altered their results and can be excluded from our analysis of data.... [tags: laboratory report]
1168 words (3.3 pages)
- Sodium was first discovered and isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807. Sodium is located in column 1 of the periodic table where all other alkali earth metals, which all of them have only 1 electron which it would happily give to another element that wants it so that it could be “happy” this then creates a positively charge atom also known as a cation. You could also find sodium by knowing its electron configuration which is [Ne] 3s1. Sodium physical properties are that it is silver in color and is a soft metal, so soft that in its pure form it could be cut with a knife.... [tags: Sodium chloride, Sodium, Chlorine]
1650 words (4.7 pages)
- Abstract: In this experiment, the amount of oxygen gases produced by an aquatic plant was measured in various concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. The plant Elodea densa was submerged into two test tubes, containing a specific concentration of sodium bicarbonate for each individual group, and the total amount of O2 produced in mL was recorded for each test tube in a specified in amount of time. The data from the groups was collected a put into table. It was predicated that, with an increase in sodium bicarbonate concentration there would be in an increase in O2.... [tags: Oxygen, Photosynthesis, Carbon dioxide, Water]
1046 words (3 pages)
- Concentration of Sodium Chloride Ions in a Solution Prediction If I double the concentration of Sodium Chloride ions in a solution the current that can flow through the circuit will also double. Controlled Variables * Temperature: Room temperature-15ºc * Voltage: 6V * Volume of water: 200cm³ * Equipment: see diagram Diagram ======= How to make the concentration * 0.5M = 5.85g in 200cm³ * 1M = 17g in 200cm³ * 1.5M = 22.85g in 200cm³ * 2M = 34g in 200cm³ * 2.5M = 39.85g in 200cm³ Method ====== * Set up all the equipment * Switch on the circuit * Write down the first current seen * Swi... [tags: Papers]
728 words (2.1 pages)
- Determining the Concentration of a Sodium Carbonate Solution Calculating the quantities and the concentration of the reagents Sodium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acidà Sodium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water Na CO + 2HCL à 2NaCl + CO +H O Calculating the approximate concentration of the sodium carbonate solution (mol dm ³) Approx = 5 5 = 0.0472mol dm ³ Concentration Mr 46+12+48 The approximate concentration of Sodium Carbonate is 0.0472mol dm ³ If the HCl needs to be twice as big as the alkali it needs to be multip... [tags: Papers]
581 words (1.7 pages)
- Investigating the Effects of Sodium Concentrations Have on the Rate of Photosynthesis Aim: To investigate the effects that different concentrations of sodium hydrogen carbonate on the rate of photosynthesis. Plan: Background Research ------------------- Photosynthesis Equation: Light energy & chlorophyll [IMAGE]6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 ================================ Factors ======= The resistance of a wire depends on certain factors. Some of these variables are listed below: · Light Wavelength · Carbon Dioxide (sodium hydrogen carbonated) · Temperature · Water All these factors will have to be kept constant except the... [tags: Papers]
605 words (1.7 pages)
- Leadership Styles : An Common Trade Share
- Interactive Theatre As Immersive Theater
- The French Revolution : A Deep Social And Political Influence
- The Effects Of Meatless On The United States Made A Video On Revolve Around Meatless Mondays
- Making Public Schools Vs. Education
- The Use Of Body Cameras On Police Officers