Different Categories of Genetic Testing Essay

Different Categories of Genetic Testing Essay

Length: 973 words (2.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Genetic testing is basically the analysis of an individual’s DNA to determine if they are susceptible to certain diseases or are carriers which can lead to their offspring suffering from a genetic disorder. Genetic testing is able to do so by indicating if there are any abnormalities or mutations in a person’s chromosomes, genes, or proteins. According to the Genetics Home Reference which is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, “more than 1,000 genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed (Genetics Home Reference, 2014).”
There are three different categories of genetic testing which include gene tests, chromosomal tests, and biochemical tests. Gene tests, or molecular genetic tests, pinpoint any deviations or mutations in individual genes or short lengths of DNA and RNA that can lead to a genetic disorder. Chromosomal tests check for a genetic disorder by checking for larger genetic variations in whole chromosomes and long lengths of DNA. Biochemical tests focus more on proteins and enzyme activity (FAQ About Genetic Testing, 2014).
Different genetic testing techniques are available to both adults and embryos. Testing done on adults usually occurs in order to find out whether or not they are a carrier and can pass a genetic disorder onto their offspring. Conversely, testing executed on embryos reveals if they are a victim of a particular genetic disease.
The type of genetic testing that adults undergo in order to determine if they are carriers is called preconception or carrier testing. According to NYU Langone Medical Center “There are two ways that carrier testing is done. One way is by direct analysis of the genes. The genes are extracted from blood cells. The genes are tested for mutati...

... middle of paper ...

...d look inside the human genome. Even though our findings may be inconclusive now, with further research it could lead to cures of genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

Works Cited

What is genetic testing?. (2014, April 18). - Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved April 30, 2014,
from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/genetictesting

About Genetic Testing. (2014, March 11). FAQ About Genetic Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://www.genome.gov/19516567

Department of Pediatrics. (2013, January 1). About Carrier Testing. Retrieved April 30, 2014,
from http://pediatrics.med.nyu.edu/genetics/clinical-services/carrier-testing/about-carrier-testing

CFTR. (2014, April 28). - cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ATP-binding
cassette sub-family C, member 7). Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CFTR

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Overview of Genetic Testing Essay

- 2014 The National Institutes of Health Genetics Home Reference defines genetic testing as “a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins”. Genetic testing is used to determine if there are variations, additions or deletions in the DNA of a genome. These differences in DNA sequencing is what contributes to an individual’s traits but also affects whether there are risks for carrying a disease trait or the possibility of developing a genetic disorder. Gene mutations can occur at various times during the life cycle....   [tags: Biology, Medicine]

Better Essays
1889 words (5.4 pages)

Genetic Manipulation or Genetic Engineering Essay

- ... The advantages can be grouped into three main categories: agricultural, medical and industrial. In the agricultural aspect, farmers are benefited through increased productivity and reduction of production costs. Human desirable traits in animals can now be developed more efficiently and precisely through genetic manipulation, instead of the traditional method of selective breeding, which is difficult and time-consuming. One such example is the transgenic salmon, whom carries a gene from another salmon that controls growth hormone production and another gene from an eel-like fish allowing them to survive in freezing conditions....   [tags: organisms, dna, pharmaceutical ]

Better Essays
944 words (2.7 pages)

Testing Tasting Phenotype And Genotypes Essay

- Phenylthiocarbamide is used to test tasting phenotype and genotypes. In 1931 a hypothesis was formulated stating that at least one bitter receptor is sensitive to PTC but is also inactive in some individuals [Newcomb R.D, 2012]. PTC concentration paper of different concentration was used in this experiment to test the ability to taste PTC amongst genetic lab students. DNA was extracted from cheek cells, amplified with PCR and digested with HaeIII. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the ability of students in tasting PTC....   [tags: Allele, Zygosity, Gene, Genotype]

Better Essays
1177 words (3.4 pages)

Genetic Disorders Essay

- Genetic disorders are diseases caused when certain mutations occur in DNA. There are a wide range of genetic disorders that are each caused by different genes and each have very different symptoms. There are three kinds of genetic disorders: single-gene disorders, chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. In this document we will cover the three types of genetic disorders, examples of each type, and possible treatment of particular disorders such as Huntington’s disease, Down syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics]

Better Essays
1433 words (4.1 pages)

Essay on Genetic Manipulation

- Genetic Manipulation Genes, being part of the basic building blocks of man, control all aspects of one's life. They control how tall you are, what color your eyes are, and what diseases might afflict you in the future. Therefore, the manipulation of such genes can be a controversial topic. The controversy most likely stems from the ethical and social questions that are raised by this procedure. Jean Dausset, author of "Scientific Knowledge and Human Dignity," and George B. Kutukdjian, author of "UNESCO and Bioethics," both discuss the topic of genetic manipulation....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1136 words (3.2 pages)

Individuals Educated in Biology or Who Are Health Conscious Are Opposed to the Genetic Modification of Foods

- ... What are the reasons behind educated people being against GM. Although I did not have a set question that linked to this, It was something that was extremely interesting to me when investigating this topic. Through the questions that I did ask, I managed to deduce why I think the majority of people form opinions that are against GM products. I think that people who are ‘educated’ and who have learnt about GM in school or at university are provided with very limited, simplified knowledge relating to the subject are only taught the negative aspects of this technology....   [tags: GMOs, dangers to health]

Better Essays
1314 words (3.8 pages)

Essay on Genetic Testing of African Americans

- Introduction Many people have often wondered about their past and where they come from, but different people react differently when it comes to finding out where they originally came from. Some actively seek to find out for themselves through researching their family history or by undergoing genetic testing, and their reaction may be either positive, or even negative, especially if their racial origin is not what they might have expected. The Afro-American community is particularly receptive towards such testing because it helps them to identify with their African origins and deal with the emotional impact of their upsetting history in which their ancestors were forcibly brought to the Ameri...   [tags: Genetic Testing Essays]

Better Essays
2906 words (8.3 pages)

Essay on The Genetic Testing Controversy

- A lot of controversial issues present themselves in psychology. Two topics that I will be discussing in this essay are the controversy over genetic testing and what things would be like without genetic testing. I will be describing what genetic testing is, and how it can affect an individual’s family life. I will be discussing the benefits of genetic counseling, as well as the positives without genetic counseling, and how this issue is debated in a psychological view. Genetic testing, can affect a person’s life in many ways....   [tags: Genetic Testing Pros & Cons]

Better Essays
1990 words (5.7 pages)

Genetic Testing Essays

- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the building block of life. The backbone of DNA is composed of four different bases: thymine (T), guanine (G), adenine (A), and cytosine (C). Each base is then attached to a phosphate group and a sugar, forming a single nucleotide. Genetic information is encoded by the sequence of nucleotides in the strand; therefore, the quantity and sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA differs depending upon the organism. Each base’s chemistry renders it specifically complementary with one other base (A-T and C-G)....   [tags: DNA, Mutations, Genetic Testing]

Free Essays
1067 words (3 pages)

Essay about Genetic Testing: Benefits and Burdens

- Genetic Testing: Benefits and Burdens Thesis: The field of genetic testing is rapidly expanding. Numerous ethical issues are arising, within genetic testing, such as privacy issues, the potential of discrimination or eugenics, and how to convey the information properly. Background: Today we live in a very technologically advanced society. Scientists are continually discovering new things about the world and the way things work. "In the 1980ís, it was becoming increasingly apparent to many scientists that an understanding of basic biology would be greatly enhanced if the detailed structure of DNA was understood" (Mehlman, 1998)....   [tags: Genetic Testing Research Papers]

Better Essays
4995 words (14.3 pages)