Descartes’s approach to understanding the difference between mind and matter initially began by him doubting all truths which he had grown up believing to be true. He believed that if anything he held to be true was ever deceiving, he would reject its reliability all together. This extreme doubt resulted in Descartes doubting his senses. He supposed that because one can experience similar thoughts and senses while awake and in dreams, the senses were deceiving. Descartes believed that the thoughts and senses which are present while being awake, had no more truths than those illusions present in dreams. Descartes’s philosophy led him to doubt the very nature of reality in the physical world. Despite the abyss of doubt in which Descartes dwelled, one thing could not be doubted, that he is a thinking thing. “…I think, therefore I am” is the fundamental truth which his skepticism could not dismantle. Descartes believed that there are three types of substances in the universe; the eternal substance, God, or creator; his creation in terms of mind; and his creation in terms of matter. According to Descartes, humans consist of both mind and matter.
Descartes pioneered the concept of interactive dualism, this is the idea that the body is made up of material things whereas the mind is an immaterial spiritual ...
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...e allows us to understand certain attributes and of their behaviours, one simply understands what it would be like to be a bat from a human perspective. This understanding is thus flawed as it is subjective to individual’s preconceptions. Angel asserts that the subjective nature of the minds acts as a barrier to understanding what it is truly like to be anything, other than one’s self. This subjective theory does not simply apply to animals, Nagel gives the example of a blind individual, although constitutionally similar to an individual with sight, there is no way a blind person could perceive or understand what the experience of seeing colour entails. As one’s perception of colour is described in a subjective point of view. One cannot to any sufficient detail, objectively describe what it is like to experience anything, as all experiences as based on subjectivity.
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