The first function mentioned is planning, which is also the most basic function of management where the manger will define, develop and design. Define goals for his/her team, develop strategies to reach these goals, once strategies are in place, design avenues of approach to merge and the different teams in their activities. In a study conducted back in 1965, by the Management Development Laboratory of the University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center, functional dimensions of planning include: “determining goals, policies, and courses of action. Work scheduling, budgeting, setting up procedures, setting goals or standards, preparing agendas, programming” (Mahoney, Jerdee, & Carroll, 1965). The manager is known for their ...
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...d objective is to organize, direct and control the staff.
Lastly, managers are separated from leaders by the evidentially present need to control; through performance reviews, evaluations and on the spot corrections needed towards employee issues. With the focus of management being task centered, control comes about from maintaining stability and efficiency which results in alignment. Alignment, for management, is to create structure and order, which ties into the planning with the short term focus and goals of a manager (versus long term objectivity of a leader who is more flexible). All four functions are considered to be essential as well as appear to be interconnected to one another in terms of how a manager will efficiently run its day to day operations while employing a highly motivated staff who is willing to align their goals with those of the organization.
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