During the occurrence of political turmoil in Florence between the White Guelphs and the Black Guelphs, the disruption between these two political parties has caused a dispute towards the papal rule; one party whom opposed papal rule, and one whom favored it. The Black Guelps who supported papal rule, dominated the White Guelphs. Considering the fact that Alighieri was a White Guelph, whom opposed papal rule, he was exiled from Florence. In the course of Alighieri’s banishment, he wrote the epic poem, The Inferno, which was inspired by his love, Beatrice. The Inferno is an allegory in which the poet Dante is guided through the circles of Hell by Virgil, who represents human reason. During his duration in Hell, Dante encounters numerous sinners whom are punished varyingly. Out of the many individuals, Dante confronts Fillipo Argenti, Bocca Deliabbati, and Pope Boniface VIII, political sinners whom he displays animosity towards. To emphasize the animosity Dante embodies, Alighieri utilizes diction, actions, as well as imagery to express hostility towards these sinners in Hell.
Proceeding onto the fifth circle of Hell, Alighieri uses diction towards Fillipo Argenti to reveal his hostility. Due to the overthrow of the White Guelphs, Dante becomes filled with resentment once he encounters Fillipo Argenti, an opposed political enemy. To express his enmity towards Filipo, Dante bitterly verbalizes his repugnant conscience saying, “May you weep through all eternity, for I know you, hell-dog, filthy as you are” (Canto VIII lines 37-38). With asserting harsh words like ‘hell-dog’, Alighieri uses diction to imply how Fillipo is a savage, wrathful sinner by adding ‘hell’ to ‘dog’, which emphasizes the meaning of the word dog to a more atroc...
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...fits you- and keep a good guard on the ill-won wealth that once made you so bold toward Charles of Anjou”(Canto XIX lines 91-93). Regarding the apathetic reactions expressed by Dante, Alighieri displays animosity by stating, “Therefore stay as you are; this hole well fits you”, indicates how he has grown hostile by further punishing Pope Nicholas’ maltreatment by not only stating how Pope Nicholas deserves the suffering that he is in, but also how it suits him well. Therefore, this conveys how Dante does not care about the pain that the Pope suffers, but instead he believes that Pope Nicholas deserves the penalty due to all the exploitation he has corrupted. With being punished for simony, Alighieri further expresses his animosity towards Pope Nicholas by displaying direct criticism, wishing him to sustain more harm as he is in the baptismal font.
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