The diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia require individuals to meet six criterions. First present for one month, individuals must present two or more symptoms including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and lastly negative symptoms (). The second requirement includes that at the time since the onset of the disturbance such as work and self-care, the disturbance is lower than achieved ().The third requirement includes that the disturbance must persist for at least six months. During the six months of disturbances, the individual must present at least one month of symptoms that meet the symptoms in the first criterion().The fourth requirement is for schizoaffective disorder and depressive or bipolar disorder with psychotic features to be ruled out. The fifth requirement states for the disturbance cannot be caused due to substance use or a medical condition. The final criterion states that if there is a history of autism spectrum disorder or a communication disorder of childhood onset, the additional diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only if delusions or hallucinations, and other required symptoms of schizophrenia, are present for at least one month ().
The diagnostic features of schizophrenia include cognitive, behavioral, and emotional dysfunctions. The diagnosis involves the recognition of signs and symptoms associated with impaired occupational or social functioning. The prevalence of schizophrenia is about 0.3%–0.7%(). Reports have shown that there is a variation in prevalence by race and ethnicity, across countries, and by geographic origin for immigrants and children of immigrants (). Looking at the development course, the psychotic features of schizop...
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...ssive symptoms( ). Evidence show that suicide rates are higher in North American populations (). As for comorbidity, many individuals diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder are also diagnosed with other mental disorders such as substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. Due to medical conditions, it is increased above base rate for the general population which leads to a decrease in life expectancy. Similar to the schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder has many differential diagnoses. A few of these diagnoses include psychotic disorder, delirium, major neurocognitive disorder, substance and medication-induced psychotic disorder, and neurocognitive disorder. Also sharing the similar functional consequences to schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder is associated with social and occupational dysfunction.
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