Diabetes Mellitus : A Complex Chronic Metabolic Disease Essay

Diabetes Mellitus : A Complex Chronic Metabolic Disease Essay

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Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic metabolic disease that is due lack or deficiency in the production of endogenous insulin hormone from the pancreatic beta cells. The multi-systemic disease can either be caused by inherited or acquired defects in insulin production or ineffectiveness of the produced insulin to exert its functions. Insulin hormone is significant in regulating glucose broken down from the food we consume. Diabetic disease interferes with the ability of the body to utilize energy derived from food. Insulin primary role is to facilitate entry of glucose into the body cells so that it can be burned into energy for body use. In cases of diabetic mellitus condition, the insulin is either deficient or not produced at all or both. Consequently leading to abnormally increased levels of glucose in the bloodstream that can result in damage to various organs system, for instance, the eye, kidney, brain, heart and nervous system. (Blair, 2016)
The three main types of diabetes mellitus are the type (1) diabetes, type (2) diabetes and gestational diabetes. Childhood onset/juvenile/insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes mellitus is a form of diabetes with genetic predisposition and is mainly characterized by the inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin due to an autoimmune-mediated destruction of the cells. Type 1 diabetes is not preventable with the current knowledge and therefore the patient have to administer insulin daily to regulate body sugar levels to optimum levels. Adult-onset/non-insulin-dependent or type 2 diabetes mellitus is mainly characterized either by body’s inability to mount an appropriate response to the action of insulin or inadequate production of insulin b...

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...HO. CDC ranks diabetes mellitus as the seventh cause of death in U.S claiming around 76,488 by 2014, death per 100,000 populations translating to 24.0. (Blair, 2016)
Impact on patients functions/abilities

Diabetes mellitus pose a high risk to functional impairment of various end organs in the long run in cases of poor management. It can results in loss of vision due to damage to small retinal blood vessels. The condition can cause impairment of kidney function and cardiac disease which can lead to a heart attack. Peripheral neuropathy is also a complication of diabetes. Damage to the nerves and blood vessels of the limb can result in ulceration and formation of a diabetic foot which consequently leads to amputation. Cognitive function domains reduced performance is also reported in diabetic patients. (Blair, 2016)
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