Diabetes : An Autoimmune Disease Essay

Diabetes : An Autoimmune Disease Essay

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Diabetes
Introduction
Diabetes is a collection of metabolic diseases that result in too much sugar, known as glucose, in the blood (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013). This can be caused by inadequate insulin production in the body or because cells do not respond properly to the insulin or a combination of both (Kishore, 2014). This paper will review the types of diabetes and one of the drugs used in treatment. Additionally, it will include dietary considerations and the long and short term affects of the disease and medication.
Types of Diabetes
There are several types of diabetes including type 1, type 2 and gestational Type 1, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is when the pancreas produces little to no insulin (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013). It starts in childhood and requires regular monitoring of blood sugar levels. Type 1 is considered an autoimmune disease because the body’s immune system attacks the insulin producing cells of the pancreas (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013). It is treated with insulin, which is available in short and long acting, which are often used in combination.
In type 2, the cells become resistant to insulin (Kishore, 2014). This causes a build-up of sugar in the body. It develops later in life and often develops in those who are over-weight. Type 2 can sometimes be managed by diet and weight loss (Kishore, 2014). Otherwise, it is treated with oral medication and sometimes insulin.
Gestational diabetes happens when the body does not produce enough insulin during pregnancy (Arcangelo, & Peterson, 2013). During pregnancy, the body produces additional hormones which can cause the body to become resistant to insulin. Not every pregnant woman gets gestational diabetes because the body can, sometimes, increase ...


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...lar system (Leontis, & Hess-Fisch, 2016). When damaged, the vascular system cannot provide adequate blood flow to the body, especially, the eyes, kidneys and nerves. Glucose levels, uncontrolled for a long period of time, can result in retinopathy and cataracts, nephropathy, and neuropathy (Leontis, & Hess-Fisch, 2016). Type 2 can lead to build up of plaque in large arteries resulting in heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease (Leontis, & Hess-Fisch, 2016). However, there are no known long term effects from taking bile acid sequestrants.
Conclusions
Diabetes, in any form, is a serious condition that must be monitored. Type 2 appears, gradually, in adulthood and, therefore, can cause long term damage before it is diagnosed. Diet and exercise are important aspects of type 2 management. When those are not enough, medication and insulin may be required.

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