According to functionalists, deviance can lead to social stability by defining the limits of proper behavior through both positive and negative consequences. Approved behavior is learned through punishment or consequences; a failing grade for a student who plagiarizes a paper, or an individual being arrested for committing a crime. Sociologist Emile Durkheim introduced the term anomie, a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective (Schaefer 2015). In times of economic collapse or during a revolution, changes in beliefs of what defines proper behavior may lead to increases in violence as a society’s views are changed. Deviance becomes more difficult to define during these times of change.
Interactionists assert that individuals learn behavior, whether proper or improper, from the social groups they associate with. Sociologist Edwin Sutherland first advanced the idea that an individual undergoes the same basic socialization process in learning conforming and deviant acts (Schaefer 2015). Through cultural transmission, criminal or deviant behavior is learned by interacting with others. This learned behavior also includes motives and rationale for explaining the deviant acts. Sutherland used the term differential association to describe the process through which an individual develops an attitude of favorability to deviant acts that leads to violation...
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...nd make efforts to transfer the member who advanced to a new unit where all that is recognized it the rank of the newly advanced member.
Looking forward, the role exit that will cause me the most difficulty will be that of active duty Coast Guardsman. In less than five years and after more than twenty years of service, I will retire from the Coast Guard. I have already seen myself hit the stages of role exit offered by Sociologist Hellen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh. First, I have my doubts as to what I will do when I retire to provide for my family. Second, I am currently searching for alternatives, by returning to college and researching potential jobs after my Coast Guard career. While I haven’t taken the third and fourth stages of Ebaugh’s model departure and creation of a new identity, the decision to exit the role of Coast Guardsman is approaching faster than I may like.
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