Essay on Development Of The United States

Essay on Development Of The United States

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Development originated in the colonial era, when Europeans constructed domestic and imperial government systems and concentrated within the emerging national states as industrial system fueled by the products of colonial labor regimes (McMichael, p. 2). In the 19th century, development was understood philosophically as the improvement of humankind. European political elites interpreted development practically, as a way to socially engineer emerging national societies (McMichael, p. 3). In the post WWII, United State was concerned how to shape the future of the newly independent states in ways that would ensure that they would not be drawn into the communist Soviet bloc. Motivated by this concern, the United States enlisted its social scientists to study and devise ways of promoting capitalist economic development and political stability in what was termed the developing world. Major critiques of the US-led modernization approach to Development have emerged since World War II, as represented by theories of Rostow theory, modernization, and dependency theory.

Early theoretical models of development associated development with economic growth and industrialization, and theorists saw countries that had not yet achieved these as being at an earlier or lower stage of development relative to Europe and North America. The most influential proponent of this view was the American economic historian Walt W. Rostow. According to the Rostow doctrine, the transition from underdevelopment to development can be described in terms of a series of steps or stages through which all countries must proceed. Rostow listed the five stages in his book The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto: the traditional society, the pre-conditions ...

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... external monopoly resulted in the foreign expropriation, and thus local unavailability, of a significant part of the actual economic surplus produced in Latin America. Therefore, the region was actively underdeveloped by not generating at its potential and losing its surplus to Europe and North America. Peripheral countries were kept from accomplishing development because they sold their products at prices below their value, while rich countries sold products at prices above their value (Peet and Hartwick pp. 188 -199). Thus, in contrast to modernization theory, which emphasized the benefits of free trade, foreign investment, and foreign aid, these theorists argued that free trade and international market relations occur in a framework of uneven relations between developed and underdeveloped countries and work to reinforce and reproduce these relations.

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