The development of radioimmunoassay by the late Solomon A. Berson and Rosalyn S. Yalow during the late 1950s represents a milestone in the history of the application of radionuclide methodology to biology and to medical investigation and practice. The method offers a technique to assay materials otherwise unmeasureable or detectable only with difficulty. Radioimmunoassay is based upon the competition between labelled and unlabelled antigen for specific antibody sites, forming antigen-antibody complexes (Goldsmith, 1975). Radioimmunoassay allows for the measurement of wide range of materials of clinical and biological importance. This technique has a significant impact on medical diagnosis due to the ease with which the tests can be carried out, while assuring precision, specificity and sensitivity. The radioimmunoassay technique, as the name implies, achieves sensitivity through the use of radionuclides and specificity that is uniquely associated with immunochemical reactions
Principle of Radioimmunoassay
The radioimmunoassay technique is based on the isotope dilution principle, along with the use of a specific antibody to bind to a portion of the substance to be measured.
Requirements of RIA
Radioimmunoassay involves three components: pure antigen, radiolabeled antigen, and antiserum
Application of RIA:
RIA has many uses, including narcotics (drug) detection, blood bank screening for the hepatitis (a highly contagious condition) virus, early cancer detection, measurement of growth hormone levels, tracking of the leukaemia virus, diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcers, and research with brain chemicals called neurotransmitter.
One of the applications of radioimmunoassay was r Determination of Levels of Za...
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...RNA through cautious arrangement, for instance through separation of hybridization power signal from that of the genes. However, northern blot has some impediments. Foremost, only a relatively significant assessment of the force of the signals can be obtained. It is usually not possible to obtain a total measurement of the quantity of specific mRNA. Second, has limited spatial resolution that proves to be cumbersome for large-scale data collection and third, the technique require expertise in proper handling of RNA and a considerable amount of time as Jacobson (2007) points out. On the hand, northern blot has a number benefits. First, the hazards posed by the artefacts are much slighter than with using PCR-based technique. Second, artefacts remain the only technique for distinguishing the existence of various transcripts for a particular gene as shown in Figure 1.
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