Oral Language: The ability to communicate in spoken form. The more fluent and automatic language is for a young person the more likely they are to advance in reading skills. It refers to hearing, understanding and the ability to use language both expressively and receptively.
Expressive Language: The ability of a person to communicate, orally, in writing, gestures, art, through pictures or video. The person speaking must “encode” their thoughts into a symbolic form so as to be received and understood by a listener.
Receptive Language: Receiving language from another person and (s)he must “decode” the speaker’s communication. Receptive language will include language, gestures along with pictures and videos.
Phonology: component of language that refers to sounds of speech. Prosody, sounds and symbols are included.
Intonation: A speaker’s voice rises and falls naturally as demonstrated in asking questions.
Stress: The loudness or softness of a speaker such as emphasizing a particular point. There can only be one stress in a word.
Juncture: The natural pauses or breaks between or within words as demonstrated in “that’s tough” and “that stuff”.
Rime: The first vowel sound in a word and all of the sounds that follow in a syllable.
Onset: The sounds that appear before the vowel sound in a word. The onset can consist of consonant blends and digraphs.
Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound in a word. The English language consists of 26 graphemes and approximately 44 phonemes.
Phonemic Awareness: Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, manipulate the phonemes in individual words. It is a subset of phonological awareness which refers to the ability to identify the larger parts of words, including s...
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...nformation they are constantly building connections to their background knowledge. Use of schema reflects how a reader uses their background knowledge and how it is organized when exposed to novel information. As one reads a new passage our schema selection will change as new information is presented. Schema theory builds off of semantics.
Pragmatics: How language is used in society to satisfy the needs of human communications. Pragmatics refer to how and when to use language. Difficulties with pragmatic language can manifest as in the person who talks when others are speaking or one who continues speaking when the listener has lost interest.
Dialect: refers to speech variations that are associated with geographical regions, ethnic groups or even differences in social class. Some learners learn to code switch between Standard English rules and their home dialect.
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