Essay about Determining The Identity Of 4 Unknown Solutions

Essay about Determining The Identity Of 4 Unknown Solutions

Length: 2703 words (7.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

To determine the identity of 4 unknown solutions, which are acids and bases left behind by a chemical company that closed, the first thing was to determine whether or not each sample was an acid or a base. This was done by taking the pH of each sample using litmus paper. The pH scale ranges from 1-14, with 7 as the middle, neutral pH. Any values over 7 are considered basic because pH is the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration, as seen in the following equation.

pH=-log[H+] [1]

Thus, if there is a low concentration of the hydronium ion, there will be a high pH. According to the bronsted-lowry definition of a base, a base is a species that will take on a hydrogen ion in solution1. So, if there is a low hydronium ion concentration, (and thus, a high pH), the solution has bound to many of the hydrogen ions, so that they are not floating around unbound in the solution. For example, unknown sample 1 had a basic pH because there was a low concentration of hydronium ions in the solution, because the substance will take on hydrogen ions instead of donating them in an aqueous solution. Unknown sample 3 also had a basic pH of 9, as seen in table 1. Therefore, unknown sample 3 also had a low concentration of hydronium ion because the litmus paper indicated it had a pH of 9 and according to equation [1], this means that the hydronium ion concentration was resultingly small, making the sample a base.
On the other hand, unknown samples 2 and 4 had acidic pH’s as indicated by the litmus paper because they had extremely low pH values. Once again according to the bronsted-lowry definition of acids and bases, acids are species that will give off or donate hydrogen ions in solution. So if a species dissociates into a hydr...

... middle of paper ...

...0.09; the initial pH of windex was 10.55; the initial pH of vinegar was 3.09; the initial pH of extra clean was 11.60. The basic pH of both the windex and extra tough cleaning spray reveal their use as cleaners because basic solutions have the capacity to break apart oily or greasy substances that often contain dirt. As a result, a fabric cloth or sponge used to clean with can easily wipe away the dirt in the grease and oil as the cleaning agent break through it 6. For instance, many windows have oily residue from human hands or birds. The basic windex is able to cut through the oil so that a paper towel can rub it away. Vinegar is acidic because it contains acetic acid which is created from the acetic acid bacterial fermentation of ethanol. This is why vinegar is often used to flavor foods, because it contains such strong noticeable acidic qualities such as smell7.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Determining And Synthesizing An Unknown Compound Essays

- Determining and Synthesizing an Unknown White Compound Kalley McMenomy Group Members: Lillie Fehr, Jared Taitt, Sara Funke Abstract: The purpose of this lab was to correctly identify the unknown white compound 341R given in lab. The investigation of the unknown compound required various testing methods such as the ion, flame, conductivity, and solubility test. These tests were used to reveal the chemical properties, while sensual observations such as the compounds white color, odorless smell, and a chalky powdery texture were used to identify the unknown white compounds physical properties....   [tags: Chemistry, Solubility, Ion, Potassium]

Better Essays
4050 words (11.6 pages)

Determining the Identity of Unknown Substances by Using the R Factor Found with Chromatography Paper

- Determining the Identity of Unknown Substances by using the Rƒ Factor found with Chromatography Paper   Purpose To separate molecules that are attracted to one another using the principles of intermolecular forces as well as a scientific ratio to find the identity of unknown substances. Theoretical Background Chromatography corresponds to the solubility of substances in a mixture, as well as, its ability to separate in different solvents. The level of separation is measured by a relative amount, Rƒ, which compares the distance that the molecule travels to the distance the solvent travels....   [tags: chemistry, laboratory analysis]

Better Essays
1313 words (3.8 pages)

Essay about The Identity Of The Unknown Compound Substance

- The identity of the mysterious unknown compound substance Guadalupe Rueda* & Alexia Tipton CHEM 111-457 Introduction There may be a time when a scientist or chemist doesn’t know the identity of a ionic compound. This can cause complications or a hazard if it’s utilized without knowing what that compounds is or can do. The only solution would be wot use a set of chemical cation/anion tests in order to identify the unknown compound. By going through elimination and confirmation tests, it is easier to identify the unknown compounds by narrowing the possible options based on the solutions formed....   [tags: Ion, Ammonia, Blue, Solubility]

Better Essays
1463 words (4.2 pages)

How Does Moniza Alvi Explore The Concept of Identity in An Unknown Girl?

- Alvi also employs the use of end-stopped lines in key moments of the poem to highlight key aspects of identity. At the height of the poem, when Moniza Alvi is feeling deeply connected to her culture, she claims she has “new brown veins.” This is the first end-stopped line we encounter in the entire poem, and Alvi uses it to accentuate her connection to this newfound aspect of her identity. The “brown” she if referring to is the henna that someone is making on her hand of a peacock. The henna, as well as the peacock, is symbolic of India, and the Indian cultural identity, as henna is something associated with India, and the peacock is the Indian national bird....   [tags: cultural identity, symbol, peacock, india]

Better Essays
1792 words (5.1 pages)

Soulutions a Book By Diana Lynn Essays

- ... Not just any plan will do. You need a plan that will lead you out of bondage and into freedom. July of this year marks the fifteenth anniversary of my being involved in the ministry of helping people recover from their addictions and life-controlling habits. I have been working on the concept of this book for the last six or seven years. As I look back over these years, a lot of things have taken place in my family, my ministry, and my life. I can truly say that God is no respecter of persons....   [tags: god, solutions, sucess]

Better Essays
734 words (2.1 pages)

Investigating The Concentration Of An Unknown Solution Of Tartrazine Essay

- Introduction Chemical compounds absorb, transmit or reflect light. They do this over a range of wavelengths through spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometry measures the amount of any chemical substance which is absorbed or transmitted. A spectrophotometer is an apparatus used to measure the intensity of light after passing through a solution. Visible spectrophotometers use light over the ultra violet range 185-400nm and visible range of 400-700nm of electromagnetic radiation. When using visible spectrophotometry to determine absorption or transmission you need to observe the colour of the solution....   [tags: Chemistry, Concentration]

Better Essays
1172 words (3.3 pages)

The Use of the Western Blot Analysis to Identify Four Unknown Species of Fish

- Protein extractions from unidentified fish samples were separated according to the molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Since some of these proteins are shared between fishes, phylogenetic evaluation was reached. Western blot analysis was used to identify four unknown species of aquatic animals via comparison of actin/myosin bands. According to the results of this assay, the best estimate is that the unidentified aquatic animals are specimens of salmon, tilapia, cod, and shrimp, respectively....   [tags: phylogenetic, protein, molecular]

Better Essays
1201 words (3.4 pages)

Paranoia Is The Unknown Disorder Essay

- Paranoia is the unknown disorder not fully aware of but it is commonly expressed as being isolated or alone while having the feeling or instinct somebody or something is lurking around and looking upon you. What is worse about this unknown factor is sometimes if we are being watched over or having a similar feeling, it is unknown to us where this presence is located. Until we can find this abomination somewhere, we remain restless and uncertain about our actions. A theory was made not too long ago discussing how the surveillance cameras put on duty all around us in stores or any public foundation can cause paranoia, stirring up within ourselves and it cannot be treated until we feel at ease...   [tags: Human, Internet, Government, The Unknown]

Better Essays
1271 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on The Unknown CItizen by W.H. Auden

- “The Unknown Citizen”      “The Unknown Citizen” by W.H. Auden, is a commentary on government and the materialism of modern man. The poem is written in the form of an obituary inscribed on a monument built by the government in commemoration of an average, upstanding, and decent community member. Throughout the passage, the speaker lists facts about the citizen’s life which he believes prove that the deceased was a valuable person. In actuality these facts represent nothing more than the socially accepted values and actions instilled in society by materialistic views....   [tags: W.H. Auden The Unknown CItizen]

Better Essays
727 words (2.1 pages)

Essay on The Unknown Citizen by W.H. Auden

- The Unknown Citizen by W.H. Auden The Poem “The Unknown Citizen” by W.H. Auden is a satire. Its narrator is the state. In this, the state pays tribute and describes a successful and positive product of its efficiency and effectiveness. In other words, it builds the character later described to the reader as “the perfect citizen.” The narrator speaks as if he is delivering a speech or common tribute using words and phrases that are familiar to the reader. Using such imagery helps the reader paint a clear picture of the character....   [tags: Unknown Citizen Auden Essays]

Better Essays
819 words (2.3 pages)