Titrations are performed to calculate the unknown concentration of solutions using standard solutions. A solution of known concentration and volume is added to a solution of known volume and unknown concentration, a burette is used to find the exact amount of the known solution is required for the reaction to come to completion. A pH indicator is used to determine when a reaction has completed.
To determine the concentration of Citric acid in both fresh and bottled lemon juice.
Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl)
Sodium Hydroxide solution (NaOH)
Bottled lemon juice
Finding the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide
The burette was cleaned three times with distilled water and three times with hydrochloric acid.
The burette was attached to the retort stand high enough for the conical flask to fit underneath, and was filled with hydrochloric acid.
The amount of hydrochloric acid in the burette was recorded.
The pipette was rinsed three times with distilled water and three times with sodium hydroxide.
Using the pipette, 20ml of sodium hydroxide was measured into the conical flask.
A few drops of phenolphthalein were added to the conical flask of sodium hydroxide.
The conical flask was placed on the white tile underneath the burette.
The acid was dropped into the conical flask by the burette until the solution went clear, showing that the pH had become neutral.
The amount of hydrochloric acid that it took to neutralise the sodium hydroxide was recorded (this value was use...
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...ice made it difficult to tell at what point the solution had reacted completely and turned green. This may have led to more or less acid being added than what was required effecting the final values of the titre.
The values used to find the concentration of the fresh lemon juice may not have been as accurate as they could have been because there were only two values used to find the concentration. The rough value was significantly more and the group that the results were taken from only took two official values meaning that the average taken from them was not as accurate as it would have been if another titration had been done. The same problem with the indicator is applicable here as fresh lemon juice is not transparent either.
The value calculated for the concentration of bottled lemon juice was 1.25M and the concentration of fresh lemon juice was 1.36M.
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