Essay about Determining The Concentration Of Citric Acid

Essay about Determining The Concentration Of Citric Acid

Length: 1365 words (3.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Determining the Concentration of Citric Acid
Introduction
Titrations are performed to calculate the unknown concentration of solutions using standard solutions. A solution of known concentration and volume is added to a solution of known volume and unknown concentration, a burette is used to find the exact amount of the known solution is required for the reaction to come to completion. A pH indicator is used to determine when a reaction has completed.
Aim
To determine the concentration of Citric acid in both fresh and bottled lemon juice.
Materials

Burette
Pipette
Retort stand
Clamp
Funnel
Beakers
Conical Flask
White tile
Vacuum pump
Buchner Flask
Distilled water
Universal Indicator
Phenolphthalein
Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl)
Sodium Hydroxide solution (NaOH)
Bottled lemon juice
Fresh lemons


Method
Finding the concentration of Sodium Hydroxide
The burette was cleaned three times with distilled water and three times with hydrochloric acid.
The burette was attached to the retort stand high enough for the conical flask to fit underneath, and was filled with hydrochloric acid.
The amount of hydrochloric acid in the burette was recorded.
The pipette was rinsed three times with distilled water and three times with sodium hydroxide.
Using the pipette, 20ml of sodium hydroxide was measured into the conical flask.
A few drops of phenolphthalein were added to the conical flask of sodium hydroxide.
The conical flask was placed on the white tile underneath the burette.
The acid was dropped into the conical flask by the burette until the solution went clear, showing that the pH had become neutral.
The amount of hydrochloric acid that it took to neutralise the sodium hydroxide was recorded (this value was use...


... middle of paper ...


...ice made it difficult to tell at what point the solution had reacted completely and turned green. This may have led to more or less acid being added than what was required effecting the final values of the titre.
The values used to find the concentration of the fresh lemon juice may not have been as accurate as they could have been because there were only two values used to find the concentration. The rough value was significantly more and the group that the results were taken from only took two official values meaning that the average taken from them was not as accurate as it would have been if another titration had been done. The same problem with the indicator is applicable here as fresh lemon juice is not transparent either.
Conclusion
The value calculated for the concentration of bottled lemon juice was 1.25M and the concentration of fresh lemon juice was 1.36M.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid Essay

- Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid Problem ------- I have been set the task of determining the concentration of a sample of citric acid, using only a 1.0 M solution of sodium hydroxide and any laboratory glassware that is required. I have also been given the RMM of citric acid as 210g and I have been told that one mole of citric acid will react with 3 moles of sodium hydroxide. My Experiment ------------- Using this information I have determined that the best way to conduct this experiment is to do a titration....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1229 words (3.5 pages)

Uses and Advantages of Citric Acid Essay

- An acid is a substance that produces H+ to form a solution that has a pH <7. It turns litmus paper red. It reacts with bases to form a salt and water. A weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely, releasing only some of its protons(H+). A strong acid is an acid that fully dissociates incompletely, releasing only some of its protons(H+). A base is a substance that can accept (H+) and releases(OH-) to form a solution that has a pH>7. It turns litmus paper blue. It reacts with acids to form a salt and water....   [tags: Acid, Base, Chemistry]

Strong Essays
1065 words (3 pages)

Essay on Analyzing Citric Acid

- The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]

Strong Essays
1704 words (4.9 pages)

Determining the Concentration of Sulphuric Acid Essay

- Determining the Concentration of Sulphuric Acid Risk assessment · CorrosiveAs sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide are both corrosive, I will wear gloves, goggles and lab coat when performing the experiment · Eye protection must be wornIf any breakages occur I will carefully dispose of the glass in a suitable bin. · If any spillages occur during my experiments I will clean them promptly. Dilution of H2SO4 As the concentration of the sulphuric acid~10moldm-3, it is too concentrated for my experiments so I will dilute it to approx 0.05moldm-3....   [tags: Papers]

Strong Essays
917 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on The Effect Of Acid Concentration On The Concentration Of The Hcl

- For Hydrochloric Acid HCl (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ Cl- (aq) + H3O+ (aq) Net ionic: HCl (aq) ↔ Cl- (aq) + H+ (aq) From the experimental data, the [H+] decreases as the concentration of the HCl in each solution decreases. Since acids dissociate in water, the dilution of the acid’s concentration (Macid) will determine the number of free hydrogen ions in the solution, being that they are equal to each other when the -log is used. By changing the concentration of the HCl, the acid strength decreases, as shown in the change in pH, due to the presence of H+ ions as they break away from the original molecules of the acid....   [tags: Acid, PH, Acid dissociation constant, Hydronium]

Strong Essays
1326 words (3.8 pages)

The Concentration Of Nitrate Acid Essay

- Before the 6M HNO3 was added into the precipitates, the supernatant was removed. Because the supernatant could be a truly strong basic which would neutralize the nitrate acid, such as, 3M and 19M NaOH. It also can be some solution which could react with acid, such as, Na2CO3. For this specific case, some gas could be evolved, which would disturb the observation. Because of reactions, the concentration of nitrate acid would decrease. Even though nothing was in the supernatant can react with nitrate acid, the nitrate acid would still be diluted by supernatant....   [tags: Solubility, Ammonia, Precipitation, Concentration]

Strong Essays
999 words (2.9 pages)

Acid Concentrations And The Germination Rate Of The Seeds Essays

- From concentrations of 0 ppm to 2500ppm, there is a clear trend created between the gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations and the germination rate of the seeds. With the exception of the 1000ppm data point, as the seeds were exposed to water with higher gibberellic acid concentrations (up to 2500ppm), they showed a reduction in the time taken for a visible seedling to break the surface coating of the seeds. This overall trend confirmed the first aspect of the hypothesis, which stated that increasing gibberellic acid concentrations would lead to faster germination rates....   [tags: Germination, Seed, Gibberellin, Abscisic acid]

Strong Essays
1242 words (3.5 pages)

Determining the Concentration of a Limewater Solution Essay

- Determining the Concentration of a Limewater Solution Introduction Previous to conducting my experiment, research was carried out and the results of it adapted to aid me in solving the problem set. In the Advanced Chemistry Student’s Book by Nuffield, on page 86, I found a similar experiment to mine with a description of implementation, which aided me in the fact that I discovered the temperature of my solution did not need to be taken. This was because the solution of calcium hydroxide they used was saturated, and therefore they measured the temperature of the saturated solution along with its solubility, due to the fact that the solubility of saturated subs...   [tags: Lab Report]

Strong Essays
1071 words (3.1 pages)

Essay about Determining the Concentration Of Limewater Solution

- Determining the Concentration Of Limewater Solution Aim: The aim of this experiment is it to find out the concentration of Limewater by performing a titration with hydrochloric acid which has concentration exactly 2.00M.. What is required for me is that I have to design my own experiment and chose the right and appropriate apparatus and equipment. I will be provided with 250cm3 of limewater, which has been made to which contains approximately 1g/dm3 of calcium Hydroxide....   [tags: Biology Lab Report]

Free Essays
1965 words (5.6 pages)

Determining the Concentration of a Lime Water Solution Essay

- Determining the Concentration of a Lime Water Solution Planning I am provided with 250cm3 of limewater which has been made such that it contains approximately 1gdm3 of calcium. Also available is hydrochloric acid which contains exactly 2.00 mol dm-3 I am to determine the concentration of limewater solution by Titration method. Apparatus used is as follows: * 50ml burette * 100ml conical flask * 100ml beaker * white tiles * resort tiles * safety goggles * pipette Chemicals used are: · 250cm3 of limewater w...   [tags: Biology Lab Report]

Free Essays
419 words (1.2 pages)