Detecting Signs Of Chemical Change

Detecting Signs Of Chemical Change

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Detecting Signs of Chemical Change


Abstract:

The objective of this experiment will be to combine various substances, liquids and metals, and to observe their behavior when they are combined. The types of reactions observed shall determine the nature of these reactions: physical or chemical.

Introduction:

An elements¡¦ reaction to certain substances may be predicted by its placement on the Periodic Table of Elements. Across a period, an element on the left will react with more vigor than one on the right, of the same period. Vertically, as elements are sectioned into groups, the reaction of each element increases as you move down in the same group. With this in mind, the reactions of the substances involved in this experiment may be hypothesized, observed, and validated.

Material and equipment:

„X 12 test tubes

„X 10-mL graduated cylinder

„X Water ¡V deionizer (distilled water)

„X 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate

„X 95% ethanol

„X 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate dissolved in 95% ethanol

„X zinc

„X 1M hydrochloric acid solution

„X 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution

„X 0.5M sodium hydrogen carbonate solution

„X 1M ammonia solution

„X magnesium

„X 1M sodium hydroxide solution

„X ammonium chloride

Procedure:

A. Be sure to always start with clean, dry test tubes, equipment, and tools.

B. Put a label on each test tube. With a pencil, number each test tube from one to twelve.

C. For this experiment, you will add the measured amount of the first sample to the measured amount of the second sample into its respectively labeled test tube then observe if a reaction occurs. In your Data Table, record the samples added to each test tube, describe the reaction observed, if any, and whether or not a chemical reaction took place.

D. Put on your safety glasses and let¡¦s begin:

1. Put the amount of 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate that fills the end of a spatula into a test tube. Then add 2mL of 95% ethanol. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 1 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

2. Put 1mL of 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate dissolved in 95% ethanol into a test tube. Then add 1mL of deionized water. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 2 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

3. Put a sample of zinc into a test tube.

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Then add 2mL of 1M hydrochloric acid solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 3 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

4. Put a sample of zinc into a test tube. Then add 2mL 0.1M copper (II)
sulfate solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 4 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

5. Put 1mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution into a test tube. Then add 1mL of 1M hydrochloric acid solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 5 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

6. Put 1mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution into a test tube. Then add 1mL of 0.5M sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 6 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

7. Put 1mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution into a test tube. Then add 1mL of 1M ammonia solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 7 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

8. Put a 1cm strip of magnesium into a test tube. Then add 2mL of 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 8 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

9. Put a 1cm strip of magnesium into a test tube. Then add 2mL of 1M hydrochloric acid solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 9 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

10. Put 1mL of 1M hydrochloric acid solution into a test tube. Then add 1mL of 1M sodium hydroxide solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 10 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

11. Put 1mL of 1M hydrochloric acid solution into a test tube. Then add 1mL of 0.5M sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 11 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

12. Put the amount of ammonium chloride that fills the end of a spatula into a test tube. Then add 2ml of deionizer water. Tap the end of the test tube to mix the solution and record the pertinent data in section 12 of the Data Table. Discard the solution in the appropriate container as directed to you by your lab instructor.

E. Wash your hands and all of the equipment with mild soap and water. As a final rinse on the equipment, use deionized water. Dry all equipment thoroughly.


Data Table

Substance
Observations Was there a chemical change?
1 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate
95% ethanol Product turned deep blue in color yet remained clear of precipitate. Yes.
2 0.1M cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate dissolved in 95% ethanol
Water Product turned medium pink in color yet remained clear of precipitate. Yes.
3 Zinc
1M hydrochloric acid solution Product bubbled upon addition to the hydrochloric acid; liquid turned cloudy ¡V precipitate was present; zinc sample disintegrated slowly and turned black in color. Yes.
4 Zinc
0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution No vigorous reaction occurred; rather, the zinc sample disintegrated slowly and turned red in color. Yes.
5 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution
1M hydrochloric acid solution No reaction occurred. No.
6 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution
0.5M sodium hydrogen carbonate solution Heavy precipitate emerged immediately and solution turned white in color; solution then became opaque and turned light, bright blue in color. Yes.
7 0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution
1M ammonia solution Medium amount of precipitate became present; solution then became opaque and turned medium blue in color. Yes.
8 magnesium
0.1M copper (II) sulfate solution Vigorous reaction; substance immediately bubbled; magnesium sample disintegrated slowly and turned red in color; liquid then turned light green in color. Yes.
9 magnesium
1M hydrochloric acid solution Vigorous reaction; substance immediately bubbled; magnesium sample disintegrated slowly and turned white in color; exothermic reaction occurred. Yes.
10 1M hydrochloric acid solution
1M sodium hydroxide solution No reaction occurred; substance remained colorless and clear of precipitate. No.
11 1M hydrochloric acid solution
0.5M sodium hydrogen carbonate solution No reaction occurred; substance remained colorless and clear of precipitate. No.
12 ammonium chloride
water Endothermic reaction occurred; substance remained colorless and clear of precipitate. Yes.
Conclusion:

Although several of the substances involved may be described as toxic, corrosive, and/or flammable, the reactions were not always as vigorous as may have been expected. With the exception of procedures 5, 10, and 11, the reactions that took place were all chemical in nature.
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