Figure 3 11. BBS of a Beam
Bar Bending Schedule of Columns
The column’s reinforcement are not particularly similar on all floors, therefore all columns were studied floor wise. The columns are also divided in two phases per floor, similar to that of beams. The values derived from the STAAD.Pro results re percentage of steel and stirrup spacing. The percentage is multiplied with the gross area of section and the reinforcement area is achieved. STAAD.Pro aims at lesser number of bars with higher diameter, but it cannot always be sufficient, therefore the number of bars were calculated manually for all columns.
Also, STAAD.Pro does not consider lap length for the column reinforcement, and the members are designed on a single element basis. Thus, the reinforcement provided is usually higher than the STAAD.Pro requirement. Lap length depends on the grade of steel and concrete. In this structure, the lap length has been kept constant at 50 × Diameter of bar.
The complete BBS of columns is attached in Appendix ABC. A sample BBS for columns is shown in figure 555.
Figure 3 12. BBS of a Column
Design of Miscellaneous Components
Few components such as Shear Wall and Balcony cannot be designed in STAAD.Pro. These elements have to be manually designed.
Design of Shear Wall
Design of Balcony
Foundation Design in STAAD.Foundation
The STAAD.Pro file can be directly exported to STAAD.Foundation for designing foundation. Isolated, Combined, Pile and Raft foundation can be designed through this software. The details required to design foundation are column position details, base reactions, moments and load combinations. The designing is itself very straightforward in STAAD.Foundation. For this structure, 61 isolated footings and 1...
... middle of paper ...
...y after reinforcement binding.
SS, Start to Start – Both Predecessor and Successor activity will start together, irrespective of the duration. This relationship is not concerned with the duration, but two activities should start together.
Example- During batching of concrete, input of aggregate and water is a start to start dependency. Both have to be input together, even though one material could stop early
SF, Start to Finish- Predecessor activity cannot start till the Successor activity has been finished. This is rarely used during project management.
Example- An old gas pipeline cannot be stopped till the new one has been constructed
FF, Finish to Finish – Predecessor and Successor activity should end together irrespective of the durations.
Example- Reinforcement binding of columns to be casted together must finish together, so casting can be done together.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Figure 3 11. BBS of a Beam Bar Bending Schedule of Columns The column’s reinforcement are not particularly similar on all floors, therefore all columns were studied floor wise. The columns are also divided in two phases per floor, similar to that of beams. The values derived from the STAAD.Pro results re percentage of steel and stirrup spacing. The percentage is multiplied with the gross area of section and the reinforcement area is achieved. STAAD.Pro aims at lesser number of bars with higher diameter, but it cannot always be sufficient, therefore the number of bars were calculated manually for all columns.... [tags: foundation, columns, reinforcement]
1386 words (4 pages)
- It is common knowledge that steel structures revolutionized building design during the early 20th century. It is less well known, however, the impact concrete has had on building design - particularly in skyscrapers. Concrete is an old building material, dating well back into prehistoric times. Yet its application for building tall structures was only truly begun to realized in the early 20th century. Concrete systems in skyscrapers are a unique brand of structure. They incorporate many different elements, and have a variety of different requirements.... [tags: ancient romans, building design]
703 words (2 pages)
- Concrete poetry presents its readers with a unique and often confounding situation. In addition to using language or parts of language in non-traditional ways, concrete poetry also uses elements that are more commonly associated with visual art. However, concrete poetry is not visual art. It is still concerned, primarily, with the use of language, generally to communicate some meaning to the reader in a way that is undeniably linguistic in nature. Concrete poetry is therefore an especially unique genre that draws upon and incorporates many different concepts from a variety of disciplines in order to fill in the gaps left when traditional grammar and syntax are eschewed.... [tags: Concrete Poetry Analysis]
2413 words (6.9 pages)
- PROPERTIES OF HIGHLIME FLY ASH CONCRETE ABSTRACT Fly ash is a waste product from coal based thermal power stations. About seven million tons of fly ash is being produced annually from these thermal power stations in Turkey. Concerted efforts are needed to make the material used to a great extent. These paper give the results of an investigation on the performance of fly ash concrete made with ASTM C class fly ashes from two sources. PC42,5 cement used in the experiments conforms to TS19 (Turkish Standards).... [tags: Concrete]
1756 words (5 pages)
- Beam design: The design selected for the beam element encompasses the use of precast prestressed concrete. Two symmetrical beams supporting a cast in-situ slab was used so as to provide longitudinal torsional restraint. All in-situ concrete and formwork shall be carried out in accordance to SANS 10100 specifications as described by the calculations attached herein. Precast design was selected since the beam can be produced under factory conditions and not necessarily cast on-site. Quality can be controlled and costs reduced since there is no need for complex scaffolding, and hence erection time and labour is lowered.... [tags: construction, support, calculations]
684 words (2 pages)
- Elements of Design The elements of design were created by Arthur Wesley Dow to help people see, describe, and create visual qualities in a systematic way. It consists of 7 elements: line, shape, form, colour, value, texture and space. Lines are paths or marks left by moving points and they can be outlines or edges of shapes and forms. Lines have qualities which can help communicate ideas and feelings such as straight or curved, thick or thin, dark or light, and continuous or broken. Implied lines suggest motion or organize an artwork and they are not actually seen, but they are present in the way edges of shapes are lined up.... [tags: Design]
1621 words (4.6 pages)
- A bank whose workers don't want to go home A creek runs through it Green buildings and bright workers Just rewards and perverse incentives Windows, light, and air Every building a forecast Harvesting bananas in the Rockies Urban forests Walkable cities In southeastern Amsterdam, at a site chosen by the workers because of its proximity to their homes, stands the headquarters of a major bank. Built in 1987, the 538,000-square-foot complex consists of ten sculptural towers linked by an undulating internal street.... [tags: Architecture Design ]
1949 words (5.6 pages)
- Pro-Life: The Opposite of Pro-Death Careful attention to the truth has never been standard operating procedure for pro-abortion advocates. Therefore, it should not be any suprise that half-truths, and misrepresentations, and many outright lies have permeated the pro-abortion propaganda campaign. Pro-choice is just a phrase used by people who know the absurdity of legal abortions and infanticide. Pro-life advocates have a more simple and straight forward approach: Pro-life is not the opposite of pro-choice, but the opposite of pro-death.... [tags: Anti-Abortion Pro Life]
899 words (2.6 pages)
- According to major supplies, “Use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing concrete is continuously, increasing. The increase has been considerable since 1980, but slowed somewhat in 1990, a year of substantial construction cutbacks. Apparently the construction community believes there are advantages in the use of synthetic fibers in concrete.” (Schupack) Synthetic fibers are used to improve crack control in concrete. Some reports say that synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) would replace welded wire fabric in many slab-on-grade applications.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
605 words (1.7 pages)
- Design Patterns What is a Design Pattern. A design pattern solves a problem within a given context. The solution that is offered by implementing a pattern results in a system design structure, which balances the concerns of the design problem in a manner most appropriate for the given context. In “Understanding and Using Patterns in Software Development”, Dirk Riehle and Heinz Zullighaven offer a rather nice definition of what a design pattern is: “A pattern is the abstraction from a concrete form which keeps recurring in specific non-arbitrary contexts.” The ability to write good patterns is very difficult.... [tags: Definition Design Pattern]
1551 words (4.4 pages)