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In order to get in detail to the current traffic control system, hybrid methodology was crucial for us, so that we can categorize the intersections as “Y” and “+” junction, and then get to know about all the flaws being exist in traffic deadlocks on road junction. In order to get rid of all the botches in current system, the best possible solution was to design an intelligent system that will kick-out the logjam. Therefore, after get to the heart of the problem, Java SE 6 was the possible tool so that we can come up with simulated version of current traffic control system.
In order to map everything with real life scenarios, each lane have a set of arrows on side, for getting density of cars flow, one can just click on arrows. Component of transport system include road, traffic lights, vehicles, message signs etc. for the sake of making intelligent all these components, so that they can communicate with each other we can just embed them with sensors and microchips. Road traffic problems are the most panic situations for ones. Therefore it is quite hot area for researchers to build such a system so that people can get out of these problems, and successfully they have implemented so far an intelligent system, which is mostly based on fuzzy logic technology to manage control traffic lights.
Figure 2.1: The simulated fuzzy logic traffic control system
• By implementing such a system it requires a high cost Ratio.
• Accuracy of the same system can be increased by using PLC based system.
• Highly chance of error in the system in case of heavy density.
2.4 RESEARCH PAPER NO: 02
PLC Based Intelligent Traffic Control System
International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences IJECS-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 06
Author: Muhammad Arshad Khattak
The main objective of this research paper was to design and implement intelligent traffic control system.
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Since traffic control system has many flaws in order to get to the heart of problem, this research paper was written to come up with such intelligent system which can detect vehicle in appropriate distance, then perform with that specific situation. After amplification of different mathematical functions and algorithms the system compute proper amount of time in order to illuminate green signal. In the same way, we can get to the heart of matter and solve the problem of traffic congestion.
The scene behind this report is to implement the design and then test, after we can understand the main concept. The goal is to design a hardware device which has following properties.
The ability to collect the information of the busy tracks by sensors and providing the output to PLC.
1. Since the system is design because of the problem in busy roads, so the system will be able to gather information from the busy track then pass that information to PLC.
2. Once the information is gathered about the track then the system will react accordingly and will change the time suitable for the situation.
First up the sensors are assembled with interface and the interface is than coincide with the general traffic system. In real world this sample can be easily implemented. Also, the performance somehow depends upon the sensors after increasing the number of sensors in system, the system can be enhancing further for the traffic light functioning. If we replace the infrared sensors with imaging system then the system will get access to wide area and will tend to the ideal system for the controlling of traffic signals.
In the research paper the author use photoelectric sensor that’s not under application at dark ages or at cloudy days.
2.5 Research paper no: 03
Intelligent Traffic Light and Density Control Using IR Sensors and Microcontroller
International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER)
A. Ms Promila Sinhmar
Numerous monitoring and traffic light control system have been proposed by the author of this paper. The system work entirely on microcontroller, which is MCS-51 family based 89V51RD2 microcontroller. The systems are mounted on the sides of road each one contains IR transmitter and IR receiver, it has capability to monitor and control traffic jam issues caused by traffic lights up to genuine extent.
Whenever a vehicle is passed by, the transmitter and receiver get activated; the IR system controls by the microcontroller and also the microcontroller count the number of vehicle passed by. There is also need to put the data of passed vehicle in memory which is done also by microcontroller. After getting all the data about the vehicle, the microcontroller than act as decisive and quickly decides upon the data on hand. The traffic light must be in quite distance from the system.
Microcontroller transfers the recorded data to the computer by serial communication through MAX232. The data collected need to transfer to the computer so that traffic monitoring work on the available data. Microcontroller use serial communication through MAX232 in order to transfer data. Also, to interface the UART and PC RS32, MAX232 IC connects all the output for signal conversion. The protocol used in the process is data transfer protocol, discussed before in this chapter. All recorded data is collected by software on computer end. Microcontroller interface has implemented in such a way that there are three push buttons switches for ENTER,UP and DOWN at port P2 of microcontroller. The system also have functionality based upon the user data, so that it can make its best possible.
1- Low range of IR make its range and efficiency decrease.
2- Microcontroller and IR have no advance management system and benefits as compared to PLC and other electronics equipment.
2.6 RESEARCH PAPER NO: 04
Control of vehicular traffic through a sequence of traffic lights positioned with disordered interval
As per as Takashi Nagatani(2005b) research, the study is related with traffic lights on road side which are mounted in homogeneous interval, but the behavior of system will be dynamical through sequence of traffic lights. The map is explained as stochastic nonlinear map. The movement of vehicle depends upon the fluctuation of traffic lights, vehicle cannot move with the same tour time when the lights fluctuate highly.
For certain values of cycle time, vehicle move together at specific inhomogeneous interval between traffic lights, the vehicles which move together will be arduous to control when the heterogeneity of light interval is higher.
2.7 RESEARCH PAPER NO: 05
An urban traffic network model via colored timed Petri nets
The concern of MariagraziaDotoli (2006b) is about the control purposes of traffic networks (TNs), in order to model the dynamics of TN system which is signalized proposed a modular framework which depends upon the colored timed Petri nets (CTPNs). Link cells and crossing sections, tokens and token colors are represented by places, vehicles and rout of corresponding vehicles respectively. In order to model the signal timing plans of the target area, ordinary timed Petri nets model is used for this purpose. The system is practically implemented in Bari, Italy, where it is tested and validated upon the discrete time in order to get the optimization strategy in the system.
2.8 RESEARCH PAPER NO: 06
Induction loop traffic sensors. How red camera works
Majlis Perbandaran Kota Baru
Based upon MPKB (undated), it senses this country traffic lightning real system. Vehicles data is sense by sensor used by Figure. When a vehicle passed by the sensor start functioning, which is provided in every direction of traffic lights, the functioning is in such a way that when the vehicle passed by it closes and before the vehicle it is open. The sensor functioning is like 24-7 and will be more active in rush hours like in morning and evening.
Figure 2.2: Induction loop traffic sensors.
The car waiting is tracked by the inductance of the loop on the road which it tests constantly. Magnetic field is built up when the current start flowing in coil. Coil combats the flow of current whenever the field is in building process. After the field is built then current flow in normal across the wire, current is flowing across the wire by the magnetic field when the switch is opened. But the current will flow until the fields are collapsed. No matter if the switch is open but the current will keep the bulb lit for certain period.