Descriptive Statistics: Raw Data Essay

Descriptive Statistics: Raw Data Essay

Length: 756 words (2.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Several things can be done to the raw data in order to see what they can say about the hypotheses (Neuman, 2003). An inspection of the raw data can be done by using the descriptive statistics to find obvious coding errors. The minimum and maximum values for each variable must fall within the admissible range. Pairwise correlations depict that all relationships must be in the expected direction. Meanwhile, listwise deletion of missing values indicates that the data can be used for analysis.

An outlier is an observation that is unusually small or large. Outliers assist researchers in detecting coding errors. According to Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994), outliers are not recommended to be routinely excluded from further analysis. Data collected were analyzed by using three approaches:
1. Cronbach’s alpha (a) was used to test the reliability. Cronbach’s alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. This is to make sure that the scales are free of random or unstable errors and produce consistent results over time (Cooper & Schindler, 1998);
2. Descriptive statistics where the researcher used mean, standard deviation and variance to get an idea on how the respondents reacted to the items in the questionnaire. The major concern of descriptive statistics is to present information in a convenient, usable and understandable form (Runyon & Audry, 1980).
Descriptive summary, including frequency and descriptive, was used to screen the data set. Among basic statistics to use were mean, median, mode, sum, variance, range, minimum, maximum, skewness and kurtosis.
3. Inferential statistics concerned with generalizing from a sample to make estimates and inferences about a wider population (Neuman, 2003...


... middle of paper ...


....e. more than 30 (Hair et al., 2006). Sekaran (2003) suggests the approximation to normality of the observed variables could be investigated by inspecting the data through histograms, stem-and leaf displays, probit plots and by computing univariate and multivariate measures of skewness and kurtosis. Histograms, stem-and-leaf and probit plots indicate the symmetric distribution of variables or sets of variables.

Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) suggest the value of skewness and kurtosis is equal to zero if the distribution of a variable is normal. Chou and Bentler (1995) emphases the absolute values of univariate skewness indices greater than 3 can be described as extremely skewed. Meanwhile, a threshold value of kurtosis greater than 10 can be considered problematic and value greater than 20 can be considered as having serious problems (Hoyle, 1995; Kline, 1998).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Statistic: Data Collection and Sampling

- Sampling is the raw resource which enables the quantitative researcher gain insight on the target population. In the past half-century, Haer & Becher (2012) note that surveys have become the ubiquitous data gathering devices serving many researchers purposes for assembling data in person or by mail. Nevertheless, the purpose of the survey is designed to gather valuable data, however, even more important is the design and in the way it is conducted ethically. Sampling strategies can be diverse depending on the resources and time available to a researcher....   [tags: target population, statistics]

Better Essays
1261 words (3.6 pages)

Analyzing The Data Collection Instruments And Sampling Methods Accessible For Researchers

- Understanding Business Research There are many different kinds of quantitative data collection instruments and sample methods accessible to researchers. The ones that I have chosen for the purpose of her paper are questionnaire, sampling and surveying. Each can be a worth to a researcher when completed with accurateness. Legitimacy is the degree to which implements measures what it is meanings to measure. Incorrect instruments can lead to invalid research at the end, which in turn can inspiration educational resolutions....   [tags: Mean, Arithmetic mean, Statistics, Question]

Better Essays
1069 words (3.1 pages)

Essay about Modern Eco Friendly Passenger Vehicles

- Summary Currently, our world is very connected and we seem to become more and more dependent on the transportation we use to get us to and from the places we need to go. With this increased dependency, fuel economy should be going up rapidly to keep the dangerous greenhouse gas emissions at steady levels instead of letting it exponentially increase. Reducing fuel consumption is something that automakers are currently working on to help out the environment. Automakers are looking into the past to understand what made fuel economy so great, and are combining those ideas with descriptive and inferential statistics to generate new ideas to help with modern eco-friendly passenger vehicles....   [tags: Statistics, Sampling, Data, Sample]

Better Essays
1066 words (3 pages)

Statistics Essay

- Statistics are necessary for scientific research because they allow the researchers to analyze empirical data needed to interpret the findings and draw conclusions based on the results of the research. According to Portney and Watkins (2009), all studies require a description of subjects and responses that are obtained through measuring central tendency, so all studies use descriptive statistics to present an appropriate use of statistical tests and the validity of data interpretation. Although descriptive statistics do not allow general conclusions and allow only limited interpretations, they are useful for understanding the study sample and establishing an appropriate framework for the fur...   [tags: Data Analysis, Frequency Distribution]

Better Essays
1090 words (3.1 pages)

Essay on Quantitative Data Anaylsis Using the IBM SPSS Statistics Software

- ... b. Only a partial list of cases with the value 17 are shown in the table of lower extremes. c. Only a partial list of cases with the value 5.00 are shown in the table of upper extremes. (2d) Illustration of the five chosen variables (After screening and cleaning)  Demonstrate the illustration of Type of Work, Age of Participants, and Gender variables by the bar chart. It reveals that the average age of male in both type of work design (PBS v. QRM) are very similar. In contrast, the mean age of females that participate in work is smaller than that of male....   [tags: setup, describe, date, steps, manipilate]

Better Essays
3081 words (8.8 pages)

Statistics in Healthcare Administration Essay

- In the health care industry, gathering information in order to find the best diagnosis route or even determine patient satisfaction is necessary. This is complete by conducting a survey and collecting data. When the information is complete, we then have statistical information used to make administrative decision within the healthcare field. The collection of meaningful statistics is an important function of any hospital or clinic. “Quantitative research guides health care decision makers with statistics--numerical data collected from measurements or observation that describe the characteristics of specific population samples....   [tags: Healthcare Administration Essays]

Better Essays
936 words (2.7 pages)

What are Descriptive Statistics? Essay

- ... The software that researchers use is often very expensive and has a steep learning curve. But, you don’t have to be a statistician or mathematical genius to use data. Descriptive statistics do not require one to have the statistical software or the statistical knowledge to describe the basic features of the data, but more often than not, descriptive statistics can be very powerful and persuasive when used appropriately. Defenders can use descriptive statistics to present quantitative descriptions of the data in a manageable form and it helps defenders to simplify large amounts of data numerically and/or graphically....   [tags: data, inferencial statistics]

Better Essays
1943 words (5.6 pages)

Essay on Statistical Methods in Quality Management: Descriptive Statistics

- Quality management frequently uses statistical methods to identify the existence of a quality problem and to analyze the root cause of the problem. Statistical methods require the collection of numerical data related to a process under investigation. The data can then be used to identify trends that can affect quality such as the rate of variance in the outcomes of a production process. The descriptive or inferential analysis of the statistical methods can also provide information about the most likely causes of the problem....   [tags: histogram, inferencial statistics, data]

Better Essays
902 words (2.6 pages)

Descriptive or Expressive Statistics Essay

- Statistics We define statistics as a branch of mathematics as a means to analyze, understand what we observe and explain synopses, so as to create sense and meaning of our explanations and observations. Each day in life we come across information that originates in various forms. This is to means in order to put sense in this information; there is the necessity to use statistics. Though, due to its empirical applications and focus, statistics is typically regarded as a distinctive math’s sciences and not only a math’s branch (Chance et al, 2005) Therefore, in certain tasks a statistician use is less mathematical; for example, ensuring that collection of data is carried out in a way that yie...   [tags: numerical summaries, inferencial statistics]

Better Essays
997 words (2.8 pages)

Differences Between Descriptive And Inferential Statistics Essay

- Read Part G, Topics 47-61 and Part H, Topics 62-67 in our textbook. Post a reading report on this discussion board forum answering the following questions: 1. What are the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive stats summarize data so the data can be comprehended. The researchers prepare a frequency distribution which shows the frequencies as descriptive statistics. Percentages, and averages are also descriptive statistics. Therefore, the descriptive statistics describe sets of data collected through observation....   [tags: Statistical significance, Statistics]

Better Essays
1130 words (3.2 pages)