Describe two different forms or methods of Intelligence Collection. Essays

Describe two different forms or methods of Intelligence Collection. Essays

Length: 1041 words (3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The concept of Open Source intelligence (OSINT) has been placed in too high regard within the intelligence community and to the detriment of the value of other forms of collection, such as Signals Intelligence (SIGINT). While useful in the Analysis function of the intelligence cycle, OSINT, as it has become known, is not and should never be the only form of intelligence collected. In order to be of use in achieving a comparative advantage for decision makers, OSINT must be combined with covert sources like SIGINT. Effective collection of OSINT enables prioritized and efficient SIGINT collection requirements.

OSINT is largely provided by the Open Source Branch within the Office of National Assessments (ONA), while SIGINT is the exclusive domain of the Defence Signals Directorate (DSD). SIGINT, in the Australian context, is “intelligence obtained by eavesdropping on electronic communications”. The definition of OSINT however is more difficult to describe. The Australian Government expects Intelligence to be “covertly obtained information” according to Flood. This goes against the publicly available nature of OSINT as described in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) publications and adopted in Australia. While both Flood and NATO definitions allow distribution of information that is usually restricted, such as diplomatic reporting, OSINT is generally considered to be freely accessible. Treveton neatly describes the difficulty in defining OSINT compared with SIGINT and other collection methods as “everything else equals open source”. Effectively OSINT is the collection method of the gaps, the collection method that contains other methods not easily categorised. The argument regarding the nature of intelligence and whether...

... middle of paper ...

... Scott and Jackson (eds). Routledge, New York, 2004.

Flood P, Report of the Inquiry into Australian Intelligence Agencies. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2004.

Hunlick A, ‘The Downside of Open Source Intelligence’. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, vol 15 issue 4, 2002, pp 565-579

NATO, AAP-6(2009) NATO Standardization Agency. Brussels, 28 April 2009.

Dr Rathmell A and Valeri L, ‘Implementing Open Source Intelligence’. Jane’s Intelligence Review, vol 9 issue 11, 01 Nov 1997.

Scott L V and Jackson P, Understanding Intelligence in the Twenty First Century. Scott and Jackson (eds). Routledge, New York, 2004.

Todd P and Bloch J, Global Intelligence: The World’s Secrets Today. Zed Books, London, 2003.

Treverton G, Reshaping National Intelligence For An Age of Information. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Analyzing The Data Collection Instruments And Sampling Methods Accessible For Researchers

- Understanding Business Research There are many different kinds of quantitative data collection instruments and sample methods accessible to researchers. The ones that I have chosen for the purpose of her paper are questionnaire, sampling and surveying. Each can be a worth to a researcher when completed with accurateness. Legitimacy is the degree to which implements measures what it is meanings to measure. Incorrect instruments can lead to invalid research at the end, which in turn can inspiration educational resolutions....   [tags: Mean, Arithmetic mean, Statistics, Question]

Strong Essays
1069 words (3.1 pages)

Automation in Transportation Fare Collection Essay examples

- ... Some larger modernized transit systems are already using automated/electronic methods of collecting fares, tracking ridership information, and invoicing companies for rides. Electronic method has two basic parameters for fare payments, these are (1) Payment options i.e. single-ride, multi-ride, period pass, stored value, and post payment; and (2) Payment media i.e. cash, token, paper ticket, magnetic ticket, smart card, credit card, debit /ATM card, and transit vouchers. In addition to this method, some cities have also implemented software solutions to automate their data collection, analysis and reporting in as much as possible....   [tags: urban transit systems]

Strong Essays
1426 words (4.1 pages)

Collection of Information for Systems Analysis Essay

- A critical part for systems analysis is the collection of information. From the very beginning, analyst need to understand the information systems that are currently in use. Besides, analyst has to find out expectations of users about how they prefer to improve the current systems and organizational operations with the new or replacement information systems. Last but not least, analyst will need to discover how users feel about the new or replacement information systems. There are many techniques for collecting these information....   [tags: Systems Analysis]

Strong Essays
1519 words (4.3 pages)

Critical Evaluation of Two Articles that Describe the Inconsistencies in Rater Behaviors

- Rating an essay is considered a complicated task for raters to remain consistent in their decision making process (DMP) when rating. It is because different raters have different qualities which affect raters’ behavior when assessing writing. Several researchers describe these qualities as raters’ proficiency level, raters’ experiences and tasks as the cause of raters’ inconsistencies in raters’ performance in their studies.Other researchers in recent studies suggest that rating process and rater cognitive process are the main cause of these variabilities.Since the level of variabilities determines both the score validity and the rater’s reliability, it is necessary to identify other causes...   [tags: Baraoui's and Baker's study]

Strong Essays
1117 words (3.2 pages)

Research Methods Essay

- Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the third and newest research methodology paradigm. Philosophically, mixed research takes an eclectic, pragmatic, and commonsense approach, suggesting that the researcher mix quantitative and qualitative in a way that works best for the given research question that is studied in a particular context. Mixed research uses both deductive and inductive methods, obtains both quantitative and qualitative data, attempts to corroborate and complement findings and takes a balanced approach to research....   [tags: Mixed Research, Qualitative Method]

Strong Essays
2274 words (6.5 pages)

Quantitative and Qualitative methods Essay

-   Contents 1.0 Introduction 2 2.0 Research methodology 2 Data types 2.1 3 Measuring Data 2.2 3 Graphical Data 2.3 3 Empirical research methods 2.4 3 Quantitative Methods 3.0 3 Qualitative Methods 3.1 3 Bibliography 4 1.0 Introduction I have been asked to produce a report which critically evaluates a wide variation of methodologies and how they can be applied to a given scenario. In this report I am going to be analyzing the usefulness of the methods that I can apply to different situations I will also be going on further to explain my knowledge of these methodologies by selecting methods and creating research documentation for a that scenario....   [tags: research, data]

Strong Essays
870 words (2.5 pages)

Quantitative, Qualitative, And Mixed Methods Research Essays

- When conducting research one of the most important parts of the process is the documentation that is kept when doing such research. Along with all the testing, sampling, and data collections, researchers should be responsible to create a research report for every study completed. This documentation is kept in the records and archives of the research facility or sponsor, for journaling and publishing. These reports can later be used by consumers, students, teachers, and any other interested party that is in need of the findings....   [tags: Scientific method, Qualitative research, Research]

Strong Essays
1083 words (3.1 pages)

Alternative Grading Methods for Students with Learning Disabilities Essay

- The 1997-updated law under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) affected assessment techniques for students with disabilities. This law requires students with disabilities participate in the general education curriculum to the extent possible. The recent trend towards inclusion has forced educators to develop ways to assess special needs students working in the general education classroom. Brain research tells us that students have different learning styles; therefore, we should have alternative grading methods to meet the needs of students with learning disabilities....   [tags: education, special education]

Strong Essays
853 words (2.4 pages)

Qualitative Research in Social Science Essay

- The field of social science is very complex with main field branches that cover anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, social psychology, and sociology. These main branches in turn contain subfields of study and there are still other disciplines in which social research is done including criminology, demography, education, and nursing (Bernard 6). Social science research is split between the positivistic (quantitative) approach and the interpretive-phenomenological approach (qualitative)....   [tags: Social Research Methods]

Strong Essays
1361 words (3.9 pages)

information methods Essay

- Q. What is Information Literacy. A. ability to recognise the need to find, organise, evaluate and use such information for effective decision-making or problem solving. Be aware that some information conveyed to you may be distorted. Be aware that you may require additional information before making a decision. Q. What is Information Technology Literacy. A. ability to recognise opportunities for and apply information technology resources to capture and manipulate data, transform data into information and present information....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Free Essays
1063 words (3 pages)