Missing teeth have traditionally been replaced with dentures that rely on the residual alveolar ridge and mucosa for support and retention. Where there is inadequate oral anatomy to support the denture, surgery may be required (preprosthetic surgery). Complete denture wearers are usually able to wear an upper denture but many struggle to eat with a lower denture because of its mobility. Dental implants offer an alternative in many circumstances. [1,2] Implant dentistry has provided dentists with a variety of innovative products and techniques to restore dentitions that otherwise would have seemed beyond the ability to restore. Fixtures are available in an array of diameters, lengths, and designs to meet a broad range of clinical applications. In addition, implant education and training is readily available to every clinician, even the dental student. Consequently, more dentists are offering implants as a treatment option in their own practices.
Dental implant was classified in relation to the bone into:
1. Subperiosteal implant.
2. Transosteal implant.
1. Endosteal implant: This type is placed in the bone (alveolar or basal) of both mandible and maxilla, and transitioning only one cortical plate. This type can be classified to root form or blade form.[4-7]
The increased needs for implant-related service result from the combined effect of a number of factors:
1. Age related loss of teeth.
2. Anatomic condition of edentulous ridge.
3. Psychological need of the patient.
4. Reduced performance of removable prosthesis.
5. Increased awareness of the benefit of implant by professionals, and the publics.
The bone and soft tissue response following dental implant placement is conttrolled by various factors. The aim of...
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... implant therapy. A critique of pertinent literature. Australian Dental Journal 2011;56:417–26.
11. Levin L, Schwartz-Arad D. The effect of cigarette smoking on dental implants and related surgery. Implant Dent 2005;14:357–63.
12. Klokkevold PR, Han TJ. How do smoking, diabetes and periodontitis affect outcomes of implant treatment? Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22(Suppl):173–202.
13. Becker W, Hujoel PP, Becker BE, Willingham H. Osteoporosis and implant failure: an exploratory case-control study. Journal of Periodontology. 2000; 71:625-31.
14. Sarin J, Derossi S, Akintoye S. Updates on bisphosphonates and potential pathobiology of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. Oral Dis 2008;14:277–285.
15. Lambert PM, Morris HF, Ochi S. The influence of smoking on 3-year clinical success of osseointegrated dental implants. Annals of Periodontology. 2000; 5:79-89.
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