The Definition and Functions of Smart Gird Essay examples

The Definition and Functions of Smart Gird Essay examples

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A smart grid (SG) is an intelligent electricity network that integrates the actions of all users that are connected to it and make use of advanced information, control, and communication technologies in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies [1]. The high-speed, bi-directional, real-time, and integrated communications system is the foundation of SG [2]. In addition to counting and pricing in smart metering, one of its most prominent requirements is to support users in smart energy utilization. Therefore, residential and enterprise consumers have to be enabled by the SG infrastructure to become aware of their energy consumption behavior.
Automated metering is one of the subsystems of SGs and plays a major role in SG infrastructure and wireless applications [3]. The automated meter reading (AMR) are featured to calculate the energy expenditure by an automated metering infrastructure (AMI) subsystem application and to improve the reliability of the current energy sys- tem. AMI system is a combination of three elements: smart meters (SMs), a metering communication infrastructure, and a meter data management (MDM) system [4].
A SM is an electrical device, which is mostly deployed at the customer’s premises and is used to collect energy usage, power outage, and quality notification and it sends the data collected to the utility company for billing [5]. Real-time power consump- tion measurement is the key element that offers benefits to the customer as it enables to make more informed decisions about the consumer energy consumption, adjusting both when they use electricity and how much they use. An MDM system not only performs data storage but also manages the vast quantities of data that are d...


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... 802.15.4 specification suggests default values for different MAC parameters; however, the de- fault configuration may not yield the most desirable tradeoff between the packet loss rate and the packet latency in all situations [13]. The performance is measured in terms of the throughput and the packet latency. The objective is to determine the appropriate values of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters that results in a good tradeoff between the throughput and the packet latency for a given traffic load range.
As to predict the delay and throughput of the unslotted CSMA-CA under the un- evenly distributed SM traffic, a Markov chain model is proposed. The Markov chain techniques decrease the analyst’s task by reducing the problem from one of mathemat- ical computation to that of state modeling, therefore, we have used it in the analysis of MAC parameters of IEEE 802.15.4 [14].

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