Ants are social insects living in communities. Division of labor is a basic structure of social organization in which allows tasks specialization for each member. Each colony has its own workers specialized to do solely a task and workers accomplish their specific jobs for a perfect social organization. The queen only job is to lay eggs. The workers emerged from the eggs are travelling to hunt for food, protect their nest and make the colony bigger. They build the nest into many chambers. Ants are referred to the cool and warm temperature. Therefore, the ant colony is built under the stones or on the ground to the underground where it is less exposed to the heat (Robinson et al., 2009)
In the natural world, ants are wandering randomly. Upon finding the food, ants will leave the chemical trails for other recruits. Ants communicate with each other by touching each other with their antennae. The nestmates follow the pheromone trail to arrive at the specific food location. The pheromone chemicals can give off different kinds of information and each ant colony has their own pheromone smell. The main content of pheromone is cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) with large availability of chemistry for specific pheromones. Therefore ants can produce many different kinds of pheromone. A certain pheromone can use as a warning for danger, mark a trail, or to recognize the other ants in the same colony (Dussutour and Nicolis, 2013, and Hannonen et al., 2002).
In insect societies, some foraging individuals may perform tasks that increase their risk of predation while others may be specialized in protecting the colony form predatory attacks (Evison et al., 2008). Foraging strategies is mediated by life expectancy in which specific tas...
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...ström, L. (2002). Queen reproduction, chemical signalling and worker behaviour in polygyne colonies of the ant formicafusca. Animal Behaviour, 64(3), 477. doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.4001
Lubertazzi, D. and Alpert, G., 2010. Myrmicatahoensis Weber.Navajo nature.Retrieved from http://www.navajonature.org/ants/myrmicinae/myrmica-tahoensis.html
Moroń D, Lenda M, Skórka P, Woyciechowski M (2012) Short-lived ants take greater risks during food collection. American Naturalist 180(6): 744-750. doi:10.1086/668009
Robinson, E. J. H. (2009). Flexible task allocation and the organization of work in ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1677), 4373-4380.
Tripet, F., &Nonacs, P. (2004).Foraging for work and age-based polyethism: The roles of age and previous experience on task choice in ants. Ethology, 110(11), 863-877. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01023.x
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