Auroras have been emitting in our, and other planets’ skies as long as the Solar System has been in motion. In 1619 A.D., Galileo Galilei coined the term "aurora borealis" after Aurora, the Roman goddess of morning. He had the misconception that the auroras he saw were due to sunlight reflecting from the atmosphere. (Angelopoulos, 2008). In 1741, Hiorter and Celsius noted that the polar aurora is accompanied by a disturbance of the magnetic needle. In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted discovered electromagnetism. André-Marie Ampére deduced that magnetism is basically the force between electric currents. In 1851, Samuel Schwabe, a German amateur astronomer, announced the discovery of the 11-year sunspot cycle, and in 1859, Richard Carrington in England observed a violent and rapid eruption near a sunspot; 17 hours later a large magnetic storm began. In 1900-3, Kristian Birkeland experiments with beams of electrons aimed at a magnetized sphere ("terrella") in a vacuum chamber. The electrons hit near the magnetic poles, leading him to propose that the polar aurora is created by electron beams from the Sun. Birkeland also observes magnetic disturbances associated with the aurora, suggesting to him that localized "polar magnetic storms" exist in the auroral zone. In 1958, Eugene Parker (Chicago) proposes the theory of the solar wind. 1981, High resolution images are obtained by Lou Frank's group in Iowa of the entire auroral zone, using the Dynamics Explorer satellite. (Stern & Peredo, 2005) This is the major timeline of how auroras came to be discovered and understood.
Now that the history is covered, I can get down to the nitty gritty of how they are able to appear in the sky. Auroras are caused by the collision of e...
... middle of paper ...
Stern,D., Peredo, M. (2005, December 25) Some Dates in the Exploration of the Magnetosphere. Retrieved from: http://http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/whchron2.html
Feldstein, Y. I. (2013, November 20) "Some problems concerning the morphology of auroras and magnetic disturbances at high latitudes.” retrieved from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_(astronomy)
Weber, E. J., et al. (2013, November 20) “F layer ionization patches in the polar cap.” retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_(astronomy)
Mottelay, F. P., (2013, November 20) Bibliographical History of Electricity and Magnetism, p. 114. retrieved from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_(astronomy)
Zell, H. (2013, September 30) About Auroras. retrieved from: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/gallery/aurora-index.html#.UpJsssSsiSo
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- “Northern Lights deals with large themes; love, betrayal, religion and science” Discuss Northern Lights deals with the forces of love, betrayal, religion and science; all of these themes spur from one source, power. Each character in the novel experiences these topics, because each character is powerful. Northern Lights shows us that all individuals must either choose to use or be overcome these forces. Ever since the dawn of time, love has been a fundamental part of every human’s lives. Northern Lights demonstrates to us that the love of a friend or the love of spouse can create either great power or bring misery and unhappiness.... [tags: Northern Lights Essays]
812 words (2.3 pages)
- ... Another way the precipitation of the storm can be enhanced is by the interaction with landscape such as the Appalachian Mountains which was in Hurricane Irene's path. The study that was analyzed utilizes a Geographic Information System (GIS) to characterize the spatial patterns of rainfall produced by Irene and to classify other tropical cyclones that took the same track as Irene over the United States. A GIS is a system that is designed to capture, store, maneuver, examine, manage, and present all types of geographical data.... [tags: weather consequences, metereology]
1293 words (3.7 pages)
- Rudd’s (2009) essay evaluates Enid Blyton’s work offering a different perspective to account for the appeal and popularity of the author. This essay looks at the aspects raised by Rudd. How Blyton, Pullman and Ransom illustrate the different aspects of a good or a bad book. The way critics confer prestige on a book or author and the arising criticism. How the agenda of the committees affects the selection of prize-winners. Finally, looking at the factors involved in success. The set books used in his essay are Pullman (1995) Northern Lights and Ransom (2001) Swallows and Amazons.... [tags: Literary Analysis, Blyton, Pullman]
1983 words (5.7 pages)
- The world is a huge 510 Million Km² adventure land, with fountains higher than the tallest skyscrapers and caves darker than darkness as we know it. There are 196 countries in the world, with cultures, ethnicities and terrestrial characteristics so diverse within each one of them that it’s almost impossible to comprehend all of it. It’s heart quenching that there is so much to experience in the world in just one life. If you are one of them who feels awaken by the smell of adventure and have an addiction for adrenaline, then this is the perfect list of five unquestionable experiences that will not only make your life worthy but also awaken a new of consciousness and understanding of earthly... [tags: Ancient Egypt, Egypt, Sky, Bora Bora]
795 words (2.3 pages)
- The Northern lights are poetry, they are nature's light show, and they are quantum leaps in the oxygen atom. They are elementary particle physics, superstition, mythology and fairy tales. The northern lights have filled people with wonder and inspired artists; they have frightened people to think that the end is at hand. More exact explanations of the phenomenon could not be given until modern particle physics were developed, and knowledge about details in the earth’s magneto sphere has been based on measurements from satellites.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
2024 words (5.8 pages)
- The Northern Lights I hardly see how one can begin to consider Shakespeare without finding some way to account for his pervasive presence in the most unlikely contexts: here, there, and everywhere at once. He is a system of northern lights, an aurora borealis visible where most of us will never go. Libraries and playhouses (and cinemas) cannot contain him; he has become a spirit or "spell of light," almost too vast to apprehend. Harold Bloom, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human I don’t expect this short paper to reach the northern lights.... [tags: Plays Literature Shakespeare Papers]
2807 words (8 pages)
- A Book Review on Northern Lights Northern Lights is an adventure and a fantasy story written by Phillip Pullman in the third person. The story takes place in Jordan College, which is in Oxford. The Master rules Jordan College and the other place is in the North. In the North, armoured bears rule the ice and witches fly in the skies. These places are in another world than that we live in. In this world, people have daemons, a sort of pet, which is attached to them by an invisible force. Daemons can also change into different animals.... [tags: English Literature]
681 words (1.9 pages)
- Analysis of Northern Lights by Philip Pullman Philip Pullman’s novel, Northern Lights, offers an impressive alternative reality which has similarities with the present day, and differences too. The story starts in Jordan College in Oxford but it is an Oxford unlike ours: the technology and the culture of the people give the impression that it is set in the late 19th century. It is a fundamentally different universe in several respects - most evidently, all humans have dæmons.... [tags: Papers]
1411 words (4 pages)
- Hate doing crunches. Do they strain your back and neck muscles. Try belly dancing, it gives you better benefits than the average crunch with less pain. In addition to the physical and emotional benefits, belly dancing also has an impact on child birth and ones creativity in an entertaining manner. The physical benefits of belly dancing are, being able to become healthier, and in better shape. Being out of shape can also affect a person’s emotional-state. Participating in belly dancing can benefit ones self-esteem, and help their emotional well-being.... [tags: Art, Dancing]
2233 words (6.4 pages)
- Book Review of Northern Lights by Philip Pullman Works Cited Missing This week I chose to read the novel "Northern Lights" by Philip Pullman. Philip Pullman was born in Norwich on 19th October 1946. The early part of his life was spent travelling all over the world, because his father and then his step father were both in the Royal Air Force. He spent part of his childhood in Australia, where he first met the wonders of comics, and grew to love Superman and Batman in particular.... [tags: Papers]
1487 words (4.2 pages)