In an attempt to understand the dissimilarities of employees from a cross-cultural perspective, Geert Hofstede (1980) conducted a pioneering survey that measured the work-related values of employees who worked for IBM subsidiaries located in 53 different countries (Hofstede & Bond, 1984). When analyzing the results, Hofstede discovered that cultures were divisible into four distinct categories, masculinity/femininity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and individualism/collectivism (Bochner 1994). Hofstede stated that the four categories relate to the core cultural values of civilizations and form the bedrock for the entire structure, customs, practices and institutions of every society (Bochner 1994). Hence, cultures diverge according to where they stand on the scale of each dimension. This essay will explore Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism construct and examples of elaboration, application, modification and criticism the construct has received in the form of further research. Furthermore, this essay will argue that … (Insert thesis statement).
Blumberg and Winch (1972) - who advocated a “curvilinear hypothesis” between the complexities of family structures and societal complexities - inspired Hofstede to investigate the individualism/collectivism construct. The researchers stated that as civilizations progress from hunter-gatherers to agrarian, and then from agrarian to urban-industrial civilizations, both the family structure and size change. In traditional hunter-gatherer socie...
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...e that Hofstede’s study is flawed and outdated; for example, Hofstede’s analysis has a static and polarized vision of culture and is believed to be stable over time, whereas now with globalization, internationalization and convergence of cultures, cultures are rapidly changing (Fang 2009). Despite Hofstede’s work being nothing short of controversial, his work on culture, which Hofstede (1980, 1981) defines, as “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others,” is still the most cited in the field of cross-cultural management in existence (Bond 2002). Furthermore, Hofstede’s groundbreaking research has successfully allowed for other cross-cultural scholars to comprehend and grasp the challenging concept of national cultural stereotypes in measurable and concrete terms (Fang 2009).
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- The cultural dimension can help to identify what sort of differences may occur in each of the dimension. Knowing this is beneficial to deal with the difference across culture and try to find alternatives to solve the issue. For the purpose of this reflection, I would like to focus on the cultural dimension of Geert H. Hofstede (2001), which are power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity. 2. Theoretical reflection First, power distance is a situation in which people acknowledge that there is different status between them (Geert H.... [tags: Geert Hofstede, Cross-cultural communication]
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- Hofstede 's cultural dimensions’ theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society 's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.  In 1965 Hofstede founded the personnel research department of IBM Europe (which he managed until 1971). Between 1967 and 1973, he executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: he compared the answers of 117,000 IBM matched employees’ samples on the same attitude survey in different countries.... [tags: Cross-cultural communication, Geert Hofstede]
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What I Learned From The Hofstede Model And How My Personal Development Has Blended Together With The Workplace
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- Basically, Hofstede’s cultural dimension is divided into five dimensions along which national culture could be described: power distance (PDI), individualism-collectivism (IDV), masculinity-femininity (MAS), uncertainty avoidance (UAI) and long-term orientation versus short-term normative orientation (LTO). The first dimension, power distance index (PDI), refers to the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.... [tags: Geert Hofstede, Dimension]
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- Professor Geert Hofstede led an extensive comprehensive study of values in the workforce and how they are influenced by culture. His research spanned over 70 countries during 1937 and 1973, and many different types of workers in several levels of the workforce Hofstede, G. (2001). Based on his research, he developed a model of six dimensions of national culture. The six dimensions are labeled as: Power distance index, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance index, long term orientation versus short term normative orientation and indulgence versus restraint.... [tags: Culture, Geert Hofstede]
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- Geert Hofstede created a scale which ranks various countries on where they stand according to the dimensions of culture: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence. This resource allows researchers to compare these dimensions of culture between different countries. Such a comparison can demonstrate similarities and differences between countries which will foster more effective communication. While there are exceptions to every rule and generalizations should not be made about how someone is based solely upon where they come from, Hofstede’s information came from a sufficiently large sample group and is, therefore, rather reliable... [tags: Geert Hofstede, Cross-cultural communication]
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- The four dimensions of culture studied by Geert Hofstede consist of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs collectivism, and masculinity vs femininity. All elements measure the effects on society, cultural behavior, value, social norms, and beliefs. Each dimension is measured on a scale ranging from 0 to 100, to represent 75 countries and regions. Power distance Power distance is the extent to which less powerful members accept that power is distributed unequally. In high power distance countries, the citizens typically submit to their superiors and are reluctant to change.... [tags: Geert Hofstede, Cross-cultural communication]
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- “Using Hofstede’s Cultural Framework to Reveal Different Management and Business Practices between Countries” Differences in management and business practices become more obvious as globalization increases (Carpenter, Taylor, & Erdogan, 2009). These differences can be revealed by using Geert Hoftstede’s six cultural dimensions. This essay will explain Hofstede’s cultural framework and how it reveals some differences in managerial styles and business practices between South Korea and the United Kingdom.... [tags: Cross-cultural communication, Culture]
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- Introduction In 1991, the great social experiment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics dissolved. The empire spanning almost five centuries, from the remnants of the Golden Horde to Stalin's "new Russia" (Hoskins, 1997) from Poland to the Pacific disappeared, leaving a political-sociological void that is only now moving towards resolution. Still the largest nation in the world (Shultz, 2000), Russia spans two continents, multiple time zones, and a land area that diminishes that of the United States.... [tags: cultural markers, Hofstede Centre]
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