The Cultural Constructs Of Hofstede 's Model Essay

The Cultural Constructs Of Hofstede 's Model Essay

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With the help of the literature, discuss one of the cultural constructs in Hofstede’s model. Following this, discuss any elaboration, application, modification and criticism the construct has attracted in the form of further research.

In an attempt to understand the dissimilarities of employees from a cross-cultural perspective, Geert Hofstede (1980) conducted a pioneering survey that measured the work-related values of employees who worked for IBM subsidiaries located in 53 different countries (Hofstede & Bond, 1984). When analyzing the results, Hofstede discovered that cultures were divisible into four distinct categories, masculinity/femininity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and individualism/collectivism (Bochner 1994). Hofstede stated that the four categories relate to the core cultural values of civilizations and form the bedrock for the entire structure, customs, practices and institutions of every society (Bochner 1994). Hence, cultures diverge according to where they stand on the scale of each dimension. This essay will explore Hofstede’s individualism/collectivism construct and examples of elaboration, application, modification and criticism the construct has received in the form of further research. Furthermore, this essay will argue that … (Insert thesis statement).

Blumberg and Winch (1972) - who advocated a “curvilinear hypothesis” between the complexities of family structures and societal complexities - inspired Hofstede to investigate the individualism/collectivism construct. The researchers stated that as civilizations progress from hunter-gatherers to agrarian, and then from agrarian to urban-industrial civilizations, both the family structure and size change. In traditional hunter-gatherer socie...


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...e that Hofstede’s study is flawed and outdated; for example, Hofstede’s analysis has a static and polarized vision of culture and is believed to be stable over time, whereas now with globalization, internationalization and convergence of cultures, cultures are rapidly changing (Fang 2009). Despite Hofstede’s work being nothing short of controversial, his work on culture, which Hofstede (1980, 1981) defines, as “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others,” is still the most cited in the field of cross-cultural management in existence (Bond 2002). Furthermore, Hofstede’s groundbreaking research has successfully allowed for other cross-cultural scholars to comprehend and grasp the challenging concept of national cultural stereotypes in measurable and concrete terms (Fang 2009).

















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