Traumatic events could intensely influence verity of function areas of the individual life; such as physically, mentally, and behaviorally. To be consider experiencing trauma, the individual have to react to the traumatic event with deep fear, helplessness, or horror. According to the DSM-5 trauma must include three parameters: re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal (pp. 192-193). In the same way, a whole coulter could be traumatize as well. External factors could set pressure on the culture. An unexpected pressure could overwhelm the cultural structure, inability to cope, and resulted...
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...lturally traumatic event to support well coping and diminish the effect of traumatic stress and likely culturally destruction. Ringel and Brandell present some steps to minimize the trauma: employ remaining culture in order to assist mange the trauma, facilitate rituals and customs that promote feelings, form self-help opportunities, legitimize the sorrow, establish order and continuity into the posttraumatic period, combine rituals and spaces to transport them out into rehabilitation, rebuild symbolic places, and establish traditional social relationships. Understanding cultural trauma and its influence is vital toward understanding the complex effect of continuing increasing historical trauma (pp. 204-205).
Ringel, Shoshana and Brandell, Jerrold M., (2012) Trauma: Contemporary Directions in Theory, Practice, and Research, Sage Publications, Chapter 10.
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