Cultural And Historical Trauma Among Native Americans Essay

Cultural And Historical Trauma Among Native Americans Essay

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This paper is a summer of chapter 10 in Trauma: Contemporary Directions in Theory, Practice, and Research (Ringel & Brandell, 2012). This chapter review the cultural and historical trauma among Native Americans. In this chapter, when referring to Native Americans, its include hundreds of diverse tribes. According to Ringel and Brandell, each tribe has its own specific cultural rules, beliefs, and practices, appearing in United States these days. Millions identify themselves as Native Americans or Alaska Natives, which makes Americans Indians to be the smallest racial minority in the country. This despite of the fact that the majority of Native Americans that grow up in the reservations live outside of the reservations, and numerous live in urban areas (p. 192). Native Americans are in higher risk than any other group to be traumatic at the individual and cultural level. The European and execute colonialism in the Americas is the beginning of the oppression and destruction of Native Americans (p. 199). Native Americans encountered a systematic and continues discriminations that were done by the colonizing forces and the US government (p. 206).
Traumatic events could intensely influence verity of function areas of the individual life; such as physically, mentally, and behaviorally. To be consider experiencing trauma, the individual have to react to the traumatic event with deep fear, helplessness, or horror. According to the DSM-5 trauma must include three parameters: re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal (pp. 192-193). In the same way, a whole coulter could be traumatize as well. External factors could set pressure on the culture. An unexpected pressure could overwhelm the cultural structure, inability to cope, and resulted...


... middle of paper ...


...lturally traumatic event to support well coping and diminish the effect of traumatic stress and likely culturally destruction. Ringel and Brandell present some steps to minimize the trauma: employ remaining culture in order to assist mange the trauma, facilitate rituals and customs that promote feelings, form self-help opportunities, legitimize the sorrow, establish order and continuity into the posttraumatic period, combine rituals and spaces to transport them out into rehabilitation, rebuild symbolic places, and establish traditional social relationships. Understanding cultural trauma and its influence is vital toward understanding the complex effect of continuing increasing historical trauma (pp. 204-205).
Reference:
Ringel, Shoshana and Brandell, Jerrold M., (2012) Trauma: Contemporary Directions in Theory, Practice, and Research, Sage Publications, Chapter 10.

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