Essay on Cue and Contextual Fear Conditioning

Essay on Cue and Contextual Fear Conditioning

Length: 1476 words (4.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Fear conditioning is a commonly used behavioral paradigm to test an organism’s ability to create associations and learn to avoid aversive stimuli. There are two methodologies: cue and contextual fear conditioning (Kim & Jung, 2006). In cued fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) which activates a strong unconditioned fear responses (UR). After a continued training period, the neutral CS is now able to activate a conditioned response (CR). Similarly, context conditioning occurs when the background or context cues, during the condition training, is able to predict the US and activate the fear response. For example, a mice can be placed in a novel environment and given an aversive stimulus (e.g. footshock). When the mice is returned to that same environment, it will display a CR (e.g. freezing). The mice’s ability for contextual fear conditioning is dependent on whether it was able to learn and associate its environment with the aversive stimulus. (Curzon, Rustay, and Browman, 2009)
One of the most famous example of fear conditioning is the Little Albert experiment conducted by Watson and Rayner in 1920. In this experiment, an infant, Albert, was presented with a white rat, and as expected, Albert initially displayed no signs of fear and began touching and playing with the rat. Soon, the experimenters began pairing the presentation of the rat with a loud noise (US) produced by banging a hammer on a steel bar. The noise caused Albert to startle and cry (UR). After several pairing, Albert learned to fear the rat (CS) and would crawl away or cry (CR) when the rat was subsequently presented (Watson and Rayner, 1920)
Fear conditioning occurs when an organism is able t...


... middle of paper ...


...as long term potentiation have different roles in fear conditioning. Hippocampal LTP is responsible for assembling and consolidating context into the hippocampus. The context then becomes associated with the US in the amygdala. Finally, the amygdala plays an important role in constructing and storing CS-US association during fear conditioning (Maren, 2001). Studying these mechanism will prove to be valuable in understanding the synaptic plasticity in other learning and memory systems. It is also possible to use fear conditioning as a model for fear disturbances disorders. Researching fear conditioning at the intracellular level, such as the role of glutamate receptors, provides a foundation in understanding memory formation, as well as begin unraveling disorders that have fear as a component: anxiety, phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Kim & Jung, 2006).



Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Classical Conditioning And Its Key Concepts Essay

- Discuss classical conditioning and explain its key concepts, giving examples of how it works in phobia treatment. Classical conditioning is a learning behaviour where an organism learns to associate a conditioned stimuli (CS) with the appearance of an unconditioned stimuli (US) creating a conditioned response (CR) (Pavlov, 1927). For example, when a person sees somebody peeling a lemon (CS) they will start salivating (CR) as they prepare for the sour taste. Classical conditioning has further been associated with the development of fear and anxiety....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov, Fear]

Powerful Essays
1517 words (4.3 pages)

Classical Conditioning And Operant Conditioning Essays

- In psychology, there are countless approaches to how a subject could learn something; in this paper, however, we are going to talk about the classical conditioning, operant condition and also the application of it in the reality. First of all, we are going to discuss the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when unconditioned stimulus gets paired with conditioned stimulus so that the subject could learn it. However, the learners have to have neutral mindset about the conditioned stimulus in order to for it to be considered as classical conditioning....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Powerful Essays
1125 words (3.2 pages)

Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory Essays

- How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying. How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying. Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for causes regarding the fear of flying has been mentioned in several articles regarding anxiety disorders....   [tags: Classical Conditioning Theory Psychology]

Powerful Essays
692 words (2 pages)

Classical Conditioning Vs. Operant Conditioning Essay

- From the time we are born to the time we die, we learn new things every day, everyone knows that if you learn something new a day then you are doing okay. However, what most people do not know is how we learn and how our minds become disciplined while we are learning. There are two ways that we, as humans, learn new things. One is called classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning is a process where one object is connected with another object that generates a certain response. The second way is call operant conditioning, which is more commonly used....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Powerful Essays
979 words (2.8 pages)

Fear Is A Potent Emotional Response Developed By The Intrinsic Essay

- Fear is a potent emotional response developed by the intrinsic need to learn in order for one to better their means of self-preservation. Though often overlooked, fear is a mental construct which presents great importance in understanding an individual’s thoughts and mannerisms. Children can help scientists to better recognize how these fears emerge. The early years of life can be considered the most daunting; everything in the environment surrounding a child is fairly new, strange, and unfamiliar....   [tags: Fear, Anxiety, Classical conditioning]

Powerful Essays
865 words (2.5 pages)

The Use Of Classical Conditioning And Pavlovian Conditioning Essay

- In 1913 a new movement in psychology appeared, Behaviorism. “Introduced by John Broadus Watson when he published the classic article Psychology as the behaviorist views it.” Consequently, Behaviorism (also called the behaviorist approach) was the primary paradigm in psychology between 1920 to 1950 and is based on a number of underlying ‘rules’: Psychology should be seen as a science; Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events, like thinking and emotion; People have no free will – a person’s environment determines their behavior; Behavior is the result of stimulus resulting in a response; and All behavior is learned from the environment....   [tags: Behaviorism, Classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov]

Powerful Essays
1276 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on The Theory Of Operant Conditioning

- Operant Conditioning looks at intentional actions that might have an effect on the surrounding environment. Thorndike was the first to conduct the study then behaviourists Skinner developed his study to explain how many aspects of the human behaviour are acquired. Skinner thought the classical conditioning was too simplistic to be a complete explanation of human behaviour. Thorndike 's study looked at the way cats would learn to escape from the puzzle box by trial and error. Cat did not immediately acquire the desirable escape behaviour, however it gradually increased their ability to show it....   [tags: Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning]

Powerful Essays
1778 words (5.1 pages)

Essay on Operant Conditioning And Operant Behavior

- Learning can be quantified through observable behaviour and is adaptive to a creature’s specific environment at an individual level rather than species level. Behaviour can be broken down into two main categories, respondent behaviour, which is impacted by events that preceded it and operant behaviour, which is behaviour that is influenced by events that follow it. Behaviour can be analysed using a three term contingency of ABC. A is the antecedent, which can increase or decrease a behaviour depending on what is desired, B is the observed behaviour and C is the consequence of that behaviour, certain consequences increase behaviour whilst some decrease it....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Powerful Essays
1352 words (3.9 pages)

Operant Conditioning And The Conditioning Essay

- There are two types of learning, one is operant conditioning, and the other is classical conditioning. Operant behaviour is behaviour that is controlled through consequences. Operant conditioning consists of a behaviour, consequence (reinforcement or punishment) and likelihood of (staddon & cerutti, 2003). Skinner, who came up with this theory based his ideologies on the work of Thorndike, who had studied learning on animals using a puzzle box. He proposed the theory known as ‘the law of effect’ (Catania, 1999)....   [tags: Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning]

Powerful Essays
1022 words (2.9 pages)

Conditioning And Addiction Essay

- Pavlovian Conditioning can be used to treat and explain addiction. We must first discuss Pavlovian conditioning and addiction before we can even begin to talk of the two together. Pavlovian Conditioning is better known as Classical Conditioning, which was created by Ivan Pavlov and later used by John Watson to explain human psychology. Classical conditioning is defined by Meriam-Webster dictionary (2016) as a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov, Behaviorism]

Powerful Essays
2264 words (6.5 pages)