Plants are autotrophs which make their own, organic nutrients, to sustain themselves, through a complex process known as photosynthesis. The plant kingdom is diverse and is made of plants of different biological diversity (Raven et al. 2005). Cryptograms or Seedless plants are vascular plants that do not produce seeds for dispersal but reproduce by windblown spores. In seedless plants the gametophyte and sporophyte are both independent phases in the plant’s life cycle. Like all vascular plants, cryptograms have true roots, stems and leaves. The sperm are flagellated and require water for reproduction. These plants are therefore limited to moist areas. It is hypothesized that many of the seedless vascular plants were once tree-sized at a point in time ("Lycopodium" September 28, 2012).
Table 1: Various plants within the plantae kingdom and their key characteristic/s.
Cryptograms and Vascular Tissue
The word vascular is synonymous with the word transport. Vascular tissue is the complex network of transport present within plants that help transport water and organic nutrients throughout the plants body. With vascular plants approximately 93% of their tissue is vascular. There are two main types of vascular tissue, the phloem and the xylem (Gregory).
The xylem is composed of two types of elongated water-conducting cells. Tracheids along with fibres and parenchyma cells make up the xylem. The xylem’s function in the plant is to transport water and salts through the plant ("Vascular Tissues in Plants" 2004).
The phloem unlike the xylem consist of living tissue called sieve tube elements, which consist of the sieve tube and a companion cell. The sieve tube elements along with sclereids and parenchyma make...
... middle of paper ...
...n Trinidad and Tobago. I would strongly recommend a checklist be done as soon as possible by the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The limitations in this research are numerous
Peter Raven, Ray Evert, and Susan Eichhorn. 2005. “Biology of Plants.” New York: Freeman and Company.
Palaeos.org, "Lycopodium." Last modified September 28, 2012. Accessed November 19, 2013. http://www.palaeos.org/Lycopodium.
Gregory, Michael. The Biology Web, "Seedless Plants." Accessed November 19, 2013. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio 102/bio 102 lectures/seedless plants/seedless plants.htm.
"Vascular Tissues in Plants," National Biology Support Service (NBSS) (2004): 1-2,
Radboud University Nijmegen, "Lycophyta (Lycopodium, Selaginella)." Accessed November 20, 2013. http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/lycophyta/.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- A comparative review of the vascular system in seed plants and humans In the evolutionary tree of life, all biotic organisms are believed to have derived from a common ancestor. The organisms falling under the eukaryotic kingdom of Plantae are known to have arisen in the same time period as those in the eukaryotic kingdom of Animalia—the Paleozoic era, about 500 million years ago (MYA) (Raven et al., 2008). Despite their chronological resemblance, their evolutionary diversity is especially great in their most advanced organisms—humans and seed plants.... [tags: Biology]
1723 words (4.9 pages)
- Written by Michael Pollan, this book is his perspective of human nature in relation to plants. He theorizes that Nature’s creation symbolize our emotional and physical desires. Pollan uses four plants to prove his theory: Apples, Tulips, Marijuana, and Potatoes. Apples, Pollan explains, mirror every human’s desire for sweetness. He writes of Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman), a man who planted apple trees all across America. He explains that Johnny Appleseed was not mythical or legendary, but that he was a real person who, like any other man or woman, had a desire for sweetness.... [tags: Plants]
437 words (1.2 pages)
- Vascular Epiphytes of Far North Queensland There are several definitions of epiphytic plants, each with a subtle difference. Heywood (1993) states that an epiphyte is, "A plant that grows on the surface of another, without deriving food from its host". Raven (1992) states that an epiphyte is, "a plant that grows on another plant, but is not parasitic on it." Basically, a plant that derives its physical support from another plant (host = phorophyte (Luttge 1989)) is an epiphyte. Epiphytes fill important ecological niches in variety of habitats.... [tags: Botany Plants Nature Essays]
1316 words (3.8 pages)
- Overtime, vascular plants have evolved in order to adapt to the new and changing environment, and one of those being the development of secondary growth. Secondary growth is defines as the increase in diameter of the stems, roots, or branches. This growth was most likely developed and evolved due to an increasing demand for sunlight in the lateral meristems of dicots and some gymnosperms. Cork cambium is one of the two lateral meristems which makes up the periderm along with cork and phelloderm in the stems.... [tags: Vascular Plants, Adaptation, Environment]
1032 words (2.9 pages)
- Intense grazing by herbivores can drastically affect the amount of seaweed present. Having secondary metabolites can be used as a defence mechanism. Many different genres of algae were studied, having many different types of chemical compounds found on many different parts of the world. Most studies harvested and purified samples then exposed these samples to different herbivores. The herbivores varied in size from large fish to smaller organisms such as amphipods. Aspects such as survivorship, behaviour and chemical composition were analyzed.... [tags: herbavores, plants, science,]
2413 words (6.9 pages)
- The scientific field of the biological control of alien invasive plants (AIP) has developed rapidly over the last 100 years in various countries (Morin et al. 2013) but, are some countries performing better than others. Biological control looks to diminish the negative consequences of alien invasive plants. For example, biological control reduces alterations of biotic and abiotic processes produced by AIP occurring within the ecosystem (Richardson and van Wilgen 2004). Major sites of invasion like the United States of America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Canada have therefore been at the forefront of scientific progress in the field of biological control (Julien and Griffiths 19... [tags: Alien Invasive Plants]
1548 words (4.4 pages)
- My love of plants began with one little ragged looking 3g azalea, named Sherwood Cerise. It had outgrown its container and was taller than customers wanted, untrimmed and a little sparse for that reason. It resembled some of the beautiful bonsaied Japanese maples, twisted and contorted and lovely. I planted it for strange reasons (after a childhood of gardening, I’d sworn off plants forever), one being that I couldn’t resist its structural beauty. That was the proverbial snowball that got my love of woodies going, and soon that snowball was out of control I took home a few more “throwaways” from the little nursery where I worked and where I found “Sherry” as I called my treasure.... [tags: Garden, Gardening, Plant, Garden plants]
1015 words (2.9 pages)
- ... It is also called the ‘false water willow’ (Aronson 2009) or better known as ‘Creat’ in English (Alagesaboopathi 2000). In Thailand, it is known as ‘Fah Tah Lai’ whereas in Japan, it is known as ‘Senshinren’ and ‘green chiretta’ in Scandinavian countries. Secondary metabolites are produced by the plants during its growth through biochemical reactions. The compounds play important role in plant life cycle starting from protection from predators, for instance, alkaloids, from stress and in reproduction by attracting pollinators.... [tags: plants, leaves, roots, stems]
1165 words (3.3 pages)
- Before targeedt genome engineering emerged there was classical plant breeding and transgenic methods to modify crop plants, and ensure sustainable production. Researchers today have utilized methods like zinc finger nucleases (ZNF) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) to create these improved crop plants. Recently, a new method has caught the eye of many researchers; a method that simplifies the process and saves labor: CRISPR-Cas9 system. This method of genome engineering is particularly interesting not only for researchers but also for millions of Americans.... [tags: CRISPR-Cas9, genome engineering, plants]
917 words (2.6 pages)
- Diverrsity of Plants Plants evolved more than 430 million years ago from multicellular green algae. By 300 million years ago, trees had evolved and formed forests, within which the diversification of vertebrates, insects, and fungi occurred. Roughly 266,000 species of plants are now living. The two major groups of plants are the bryophytes and the vascular plants; the latter group consists of nine divisions that have living members. Bryophytes and ferns require free water so that sperm can swim between the male and female sex organs; most other plants do not.... [tags: essays research papers]
2874 words (8.2 pages)