Fisher and Lovell (2009) state that Geert Hofstede (1991 and 2001) carried out the seminal empirical work on national value differences in organizations. He conducted a questionnaire survey of employees in the national subsidiaries in the 1968 and 1972. The results from the smaller subsidiaries were ignored and so the analysis finally enabled a comparison between the personal values of employees in 53 countries. He identified four dimensions along with the values of employees in different countries varied. The four dimensions include:
Power distance which is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Individualism versus Collectivism, individualism is high in countries which the ties between individual are loose and everyone is expected to look out for themselves. It is low in collectivist countries where people are integrated into strong, cohesive groups and are expected to give loyalty to these groups in return for their protection (Fisher and Lovell 2009, p.438).
Masculinity versus Femininity, where Masculinity is high in countries in which gender roles are distinct and in which men are expected to be assertive, tough and focused on material success and women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life. In societies which masculinity is low the gender roles overlap and both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life. Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which society member feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. Societies in which there is low uncertainty avoidance are comfortable with ambiguity; those in which there is high uncertainty avoidance...
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...stede, G. (1998). Attitudes, Values and Organizational Culture: Disentangling the concepts. Organization Studies, Vol 3, p. 477.
McSweeney, B. (2000). The Fallacy of National Culture Identification. 6th Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Accounting Conference, Manchester, UK.
McSweeney, B. (2000). Hofstede's Model of National Cultural Differences and their Consequences: A triumph of faith, A failure of analysis. Human Relations, Vol 1, p. 89-101.
Myers, M. D. & Tan, F. B. (1997). Beyond Models of National Culture in Information Systems Research. Journal of Global Information Management, Vol 1, p. 24-32.
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A Theory of Cultural Values and some Implications for Work. Applied Psychology, Vol 48, p. 23-47.
Sondergaard, M. (1994). Hofstede's Consequences: A study of reviews, citations and replications. Organization Studies, Vol 15, p. 447.
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