CRTs in Newfoundland and Labrador are used to assess a variety of subject areas, including English Language Arts (grades 3, 6 and 9), Mathematics (grades 3, 6 and 9), Science (grade 9), and Core French (grade 9). At the primary and elementary levels, CRTs in English language arts have been used to assess student’s performance in reading, writing, listening and speaking (Department of Education, 2012a), although speaking is no longer part of the provincial assessment. CRT scores from the demand writing sections of this assessment were the focus of this study. The writing assessment is called demand writing, and evaluates students’ written compositions to two different prompts (Department of Education, 2012c). An example of one of the grade 3 prompts was, “Think about something you would like to see improved in your school or community. Write a letter to Premier Williams expressing your concern. Include the problem and how you and Premier Williams could work together to ...
... middle of paper ...
Cummins (1996) uses the threshold hypothesis and the interdependence of language hypothesis to explain the impact of learning a second language on the first language. Cummins’ interdependence of language hypothesis (1979, 1981, 2001) is particularly relevant to IF as it refers to the interdependence of first and second literacy skills. Cummins hypothesized that skills learned in one language transfer and support language development in a second language. So strong first language skills help in the development of second language skills just as strong second language skills have a positive impact on first language skills. He believed that everyone has a “common underlying language proficiency” (1983, p. 116) such that specific parts of the brain are positively impacted by the learning of any language and this positive impact is transferable to another language.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Criterion Referenced Tests have been around as late as the 1970's. The creation of the Criterion Referenced Test helped establish specific standards. It was created in order to establish certain information and learning that is necessary to continue the next steps in a child's education. With Criterion Referenced Tests, students learning is copared to the criteria or standards, not to other students. These types of assessments consist of multiple choice items that match the curriculum, or at least suppose to match the curriculum.... [tags: education, standards]
1360 words (3.9 pages)
- In this article, the authors discuss how the misuse of norm-referenced tests can impact the assessment and treatment of a client. Norm-referenced tests provide a comparison between the skills and behaviors assessed of a client to the relevant norms of a similar age group. According to the article, a clinician must ensure to properly use a norm-referenced test in order to provide evidence as to whether a client may need more assessments or whether a certain treatment approach is more beneficial to the client.... [tags: norms, referenced tests, client]
718 words (2.1 pages)
- Convenient in use is actually means the location distance for accessing, involving the speed of time and space which suitable as the findings were confirmed by Pomerantz and Luo (2006) from the interviews with chat reference users, where approximately half of them chose to use that service because of the convenient condition. Besides, Emmanuel (2004) also stated that chat reference can be conducted from any location and can provide reference services to those who is not a physical access to the library.... [tags: convenience, perception, reference]
671 words (1.9 pages)
- How standardized are standardized tests. In America, we strive to perfect them as well as give our students an education they deserve but at what cost. Standardized tests have been the easiest way to ultimately evaluate a student against every other student in America. However, standardized tests are not as great as they are made out to be. We need to take a step back and look at the faults of standardized tests. Quite simply: Standardized tests are not standardized. Standardized tests are biased to certain students whether it is race, or even how much money the parent(s) earn.... [tags: Standardized Tests Essays]
1977 words (5.6 pages)
- Abstract This study is aimed to investigate the washback effect that is generated by the newly launched English entrance examination which is regarded as one of the most prominent high-stakes test in Thailand in order to provide the useful information to English teachers in Thailand. In so doing, all related studies on washback from other Asian countries are reviewed and then conceptualized to investigate the washback in Thailand. This study is conducted using the two conceptual frameworks of Alderson and Wall (1993) and of Bachman and Palmer (1996).... [tags: tests and testing]
1255 words (3.6 pages)
- Character Reference Letter for a Friend The purpose is to provide a character reference for Bob Simmons whom I have known as a classmate, roommate, and friend for a period of six years. I first met Bob our freshman year at State College. We were studying an arts program there and became acquainted through a number of classes that we shared. By the second year, we had become friends and decided to live together in an off-campus apartment. We shared that living arrangement until we graduated last year.... [tags: Business Character Reference Letters]
404 words (1.2 pages)
- State tests have existed as a main subject is high school for many years now. It almost all schools today students must pass these tests to graduate from high school. These tests are a very controversial topic, many pros and cons go along with the subject of state test. Some people believe that these tests help with students' education, and they should have to pass these tests to graduate from high school; others disagree and think these tests just cause more stress for students. Students spend their time in high school learning more about taking state tests when they could use more of their time learning skills that would aid them in their future life.... [tags: high school, state tests, tests scores]
1365 words (3.9 pages)
- In order to identify an unknown bacterium a variety of tests can be performed. The unknown bacterium that underwent a few of these tests was determined to be Escherichia coli. A Gram stain, citrate utilization test using Simmons citrate agar, and a urease detection test with phenol red were performed on the assigned bacterium. The unknown bacterium was determined to be E. coli because the tests concluded that the specimen was Gram-negative, bacilli, citrate utilization negative, and urease production negative.... [tags: unknown bacterium, tests, E Coli]
1143 words (3.3 pages)
- William Stern in the 1912 took the mental age of an individual, divided it by the chronological age and obtained the ratio, which he called as an intelligence quotient. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score used to express the relative intelligence of a person. In the modern society with high competition in different areas intelligence tests are widely used. IQ tests starting to appear in job interviews as a part of the application process as well. This is still a controversial issue about whether IQ tests should be included in the employability process.... [tags: Tests, Jobs, Skills]
521 words (1.5 pages)
- Standardized tests are administered to allow reliable and valid comparisons to be made among students taking the test. Two major types of standardized tests are currently in use; norm-referenced and criterion-referenced. A norm-referenced test is a test that has been given to representative samples of students such that norms of performance are established. Each student taking the test receives a score that can be compared to the norm or normal or sample of students. The scores are then reported in percentiles.... [tags: Standardized Testing Essays]
963 words (2.8 pages)