Rational choice is based on the presumption that crime is a personal choice and that people can freely choose to participate in such criminal activity based on the outcomes, whether it be negative or positive. A person may choose to engage in a crime because it may seem rewarding and pleasurable. On the other hand, a person may decide to avoid participating in criminal activity from their fear of being punished. If the risk of getting caught is too high, one may decide not to commit the crime. In short, a person will take careful consideration to the cost and benefits before deciding to commit a crime.
I believe that rational choice has high validity to it. In almost all decisions someone makes, they usually weigh the consequences of their actions. There are very few people in today's society who will not sit there and weigh the risk of their actions before doing anything. If the risk is too high, more often than not a person is not going to go on a commit the crime and worry about the consequences later. However, some people tend to act out on impulse and do not tend to think of the consequences of their actions so rational choice may not apply to all.
The labeling theory states that the behaviors and identities of individuals can be influenced by the name, or label, that society gives them. An example of this is a teenager, who lives in an area that is populated with gangs, may be identified as one of the gang members. Eventually he or she, will start to act like a gang member or even become a member.
In my opinion, labeling theory is comparable to stereotypical references in that more often than not stereotypes prove to be true or accurate. For example, labeli...
... middle of paper ...
...ed during an illegal search and the court denied his motion to suppress. However, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the conviction stating that the officer 's search, even though he lacked the probable cause to arrest Terry at time of the search, satisfied the conditions outlined in the Fourth Amendment.
From Terry v. Ohio, a stop and search from an officer was from there on out called a "stop and frisk". This case is also one of the many landmark cases that we should know details of. From my criminal procedure and criminal investigation classes, I learned that the main purpose of the "stop and frisk" is officer safety. I believe that it is a good measure when stopping someone and suspecting they have a weapon on their person. An officer should have the right to pat them down if they fear for their safety or believe the person is carrying a concealed weapon.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Criminological Theory – The Classical Theory Criminals come from all walks of life. Some are wealthy business owners while others are poverty-stricken and homeless. Some are 60 years old while others are 16. What makes people decide to become a criminal. Why does one person who gets arrested and faces punishment learn from the mistake and does nothing illegal again while others become prison regulars. Criminological theory seeks to answer these questions in an effort to mold societal influence and implement programs to deter people from committing crimes.... [tags: Criminology, Crime, Criminal justice]
1079 words (3.1 pages)
- Many of the traditional criminological theories focused more on biological, psychological and sociological explanations of crime rather than on the cost and benefits of crime. More conservative approaches, including routine actives, lifestyle exposure and opportunity theories have clearly incorporated crime rate patterns as a fundamental part of analyzing the economics of crime. Crime statistics are important for the simple reason that they help put theories into a logical perspective. For example, a prospective home owner may want to look at crime rates in areas of potential occupancy.... [tags: Legal Issues, Crime]
1966 words (5.6 pages)
- ... Many of these drug transactions take place on the open streets in public because it is more common in these lower class areas than not. This idea of a widespread drug industry on the open streets has a large impact on others who are becoming involved in selling drugs. This perception will affect a person’s choice of whether or not to become involved in selling drugs because it is commonly viewed by public figures. If this activity is viewed so often, then it is possible for an individual to make a choice that this is a fast and easy way to make money and the benefits outweigh the costs of this illegal activity.... [tags: money, gangs, criminological ]
1940 words (5.5 pages)
- As the act of criminality is a global phenomenon, there must therefore be some explanation as to why this is; some schools of thought strive to explicate this by means of genetics, whilst others take a more socially influenced approach. Although at the time, the micro-criminological theories of Lombroso and Sheldon may have appeared credible, modern research has attempted to refute such notions. In an epidemiological context, the act of crime is seen by some as a positive contribution to society, as noted by Durkheim (Kirby et al, 2000), although too much will lead to social instability, or anomie.... [tags: Psychology, Micro-Criminological Theories]
1900 words (5.4 pages)
- Robert Agnew developed general strain theory (GST) in 1992 based off of Robert King Merton’s strain theory. The theory explains that people are pressured into crime. Agnew argues there are multiple sources of strain, which include but are not limited to; objective and subjective strains, experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strains. He also discusses which strains are most likely to lead to crime and why. Agnew believes people engage in crime because they experience strains or stressors and that crime is a type of corrective action to cope with, reduce, or escape their strains.... [tags: Criminology, Crime, Social control theory]
860 words (2.5 pages)
- 1. Hypothesis - A hypothesis is defined by the Criminal Justice Today textbook as "An explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation. Also, something that is taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation" (Schmalleger 73). It is, essentially, a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. In terms of law and criminal justice, The Law Dictionary website defines the term as "A supposition, assumption, or theory; a theory set up by the prosecution, on a criminal trial, or by the defense, as an explanation of the facts in evidence, and a ground for inferring g... [tags: Criminology, Sociology, Economics, Crime]
1485 words (4.2 pages)
- Crime is an in inevitable occurrence in today 's culture. Despite the best efforts of our country 's criminal justice system, crime continues to be on the rise. In an effort to reverse this rising tide, efforts are being made to understand the underlying cause of crime and factors that can lead an individual into the life of crime. From the sociological perspective, there are three theories that are used to explain the cause of crime. They are the social structure theory, the bad neighborhood theory, and the social process theory.... [tags: Sociology, Crime, Criminal justice, Social class]
1046 words (3 pages)
- 1.0 Introduction Crime depicts any act or omission that is prohibited by the public law. On the same note, behavior is a function which has measurable differences in psychological characteristics among individuals (Brennan-Galvin, 2002). Such characteristics may be influenced by constitutional, personality attributes, and neurophysiologic or genetics factors. Likewise, criminal behavior is the commission of acts which in their situational and social settings are considered crimes due to the fact that they violate existing norms and codes of conduct regardless of whether the perpetrator is arrested, and if tried, convicted or acquitted.... [tags: Criminology ]
1003 words (2.9 pages)
- The social learning theory is a psychological view point that states people obtain knowledge how to function by modeling themselves after the people whom they have observed (Schmalleger, 2011). The modeling theory of aggression by Albert Bandura analyzes the advancement of aggressive behavior by an individual’s observation of others (Osterburg, 2010). Although the social learning theory states that people can learn through observation, learning does not necessarily lead to aggressive behavior. Adhering to the new policy of the Jefferson County Department of Job and Family Services of removing every child from their household because of the offense of one or more legal guardian has committed... [tags: Obtain Knowledge, Psychological View Point]
1540 words (4.4 pages)
- The differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland in the 20th century. The Differential Association Theory is described as interaction with others; individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. The differential association theory is the most talked about of the learning theories of deviance. Deviance is the fact or state of departing from usual or accepted standards, especially in social or sexual behavior. According to, Boundless, “The theory explains 51% of the variance of criminal behavior, even considering that no criminal population is used for the test and only minor offenses are measured” (Boundless).... [tags: Criminology, Crime, Juvenile delinquency]
848 words (2.4 pages)